1,218 research outputs found

    Thermo-dynamical measurements for ATLAS Inner Detector (evaporative cooling system)

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    During the construction, installation and initial operation of the Evaporative Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector SCT Barrel Sub-detector, some performance characteristics were observed to be inconsistent with the original design specifications, therefore the assumptions made in the ATLAS Inner Detector TDR were revisited. The main concern arose because of unexpected pressure drops in the piping system from the end of the detector structure to the distribution racks. The author of this theses made a series of measurements of these pressure drops and the thermal behavior of SCT-Barrel cooling Stave. Tests were performed on the installed detector in the pit, and using a specially assembled full scale replica in the SR1 laboratory at CERN. This test setup has been used to perform extensive tests of the cooling performance of the system including measurements of pressure drops in different parts of system, studies of the thermal profile along the stave pipe for different running conditions / parameters and coolant flow measurements in the system. The pressure drops in the system and the associated temperatures in the barrel cooling loops have been studied as a function of the system variables, for example; input liquid pressure, vapour back pressure, module power load and input liquid temperature. Measurements were performed with 10, 11, 12, 13 barabs inlet liquid pressure in system, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 barabs vapour back pressure in system, and 0 W, 3 W, 6 W, 9 W, 10.5W power applied per silicon module. The measurements clearly show that the cooling system can not achieve the design evaporation temperature of -25C in every part of the detector (SCT Barrel loops) in case of 13 barabs nominal inlet liquid pressure, 1.2 barabs minimum possible back pressure and 6W nominal power per SCT Barrel silicon module and especially at the end of the ATLAS ID operation period when modules will work on full power of 10.5 W. This will lead to the problem of thermal run-away of the ATLAS SCT, especially near the end of the operational period after significant radiation exposure has occurred. The LHC luminosity profile, depletion voltage and leakage current values and the total power dissipated from the modules were revised. Thermal runaway limits for the ATLAS SCT sub-detector were also revised. Results show that coolants evaporation temperature necessary for the sub-detector's safe operation over the full lifetime (10 years) is -15C with a safety factor of 2. Laboratory measurements clearly show that the cooling system can not achieve even this necessary evaporation temperature of -15C. It is now impossible to make mechanical modifications to the cooling system, for example; changing the diameter of the cooling pipes, or the thermal performance of the in-system heat exchanger or reducing the vapour back pressure. It was therefore decided to investigate changes to the cooling fluid and to test mixtures of Hexafluoroethane (R116) C2F6 and Octafluoropropane(R218) C3F8 at differing ratios instead of just pure C3F8 coolant presently used. For this purpose, a new "blending" machine was assembled in the SR1 laboratory, with a new device an "on-line acoustic flow meter and fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer" (Sonar Analyzer) attached to it. The Machines were connected to the already existing laboratory test station and new extensive tests were performed to investigate different proportion of C3F8/C2F6 blends to find the mixture ratio which resulted in the best operational performance as measured by: the temperature distribution, pressure drops and flow parameters over the system, to ensure best cooling performance of SCT Barrel cooling loops for long term ATLAS SCT operation. Measurements were performed with different percentage of C2F6 (1%, 2%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%) coolant in the C3F8/C2F6 mixture, for different power (0 W, 3 W, 6 W, 9 W, 10.5W) applied to dummy modules on the SCT cooling stave, with 13 barabs inlet liquid pressure and for different vapour back pressures (1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 barabs) in the system. Results prove that with 25% of C2F6 in the blend mixture, it is possible to lower the evaporation temperature by ~10C in the case of nominal operation parameters of the system. The ATLAS Inner Detector Evaporative Cooling System can therefore reach the necessary evaporation temperature and therefore can guarantee thermal stability of the SCT, even at the end of the operation period

    Implementation of ultrasonic sensing for high resolution measurement of binary gas mixture fractions

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    We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a single gas. Sensitivity < 5 × 10−5 is demonstrated to leaks of octaflouropropane (C3F8) coolant into nitrogen during a long duration (18 month) continuous study. The sensitivity of the described measurement system is shown to depend on the difference in molecular masses of the two gases in the mixture. The impact of temperature and pressure variances on the accuracy of the measurement is analysed. Practical considerations for the implementation and deployment of long term, in situ ultrasonic leak detection systems are also described. Although development of the described systems was motivated by the requirements of an evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system, the instrument is applicable to the detection of leaks of many other gases and to processes requiring continuous knowledge of particular binary gas mixture fractions

    Model-independent evidence for J/ψpJ/\psi p contributions to Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\to J/\psi p K^- decays

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    The data sample of Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\to J/\psi p K^- decays acquired with the LHCb detector from 7 and 8~TeV pppp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb1^{-1}, is inspected for the presence of J/ψpJ/\psi p or J/ψKJ/\psi K^- contributions with minimal assumptions about KpK^- p contributions. It is demonstrated at more than 9 standard deviations that Λb0J/ψpK\Lambda_b^0\to J/\psi p K^- decays cannot be described with KpK^- p contributions alone, and that J/ψpJ/\psi p contributions play a dominant role in this incompatibility. These model-independent results support the previously obtained model-dependent evidence for Pc+J/ψpP_c^+\to J/\psi p charmonium-pentaquark states in the same data sample.Comment: 21 pages, 12 figures (including the supplemental section added at the end

    Measurement of the Bs0J/ψηB_{s}^{0} \rightarrow J/\psi \eta lifetime

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    Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb13 fb^{-1}, collected by the LHCb experiment in pppp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, the effective lifetime in the Bs0J/ψηB^0_s \rightarrow J/\psi \eta decay mode, τeff\tau_{\textrm{eff}}, is measured to be τeff=1.479±0.034 (stat)±0.011 (syst)\tau_{\textrm{eff}} = 1.479 \pm 0.034~\textrm{(stat)} \pm 0.011 ~\textrm{(syst)} ps. Assuming CPCP conservation, τeff\tau_{\textrm{eff}} corresponds to the lifetime of the light Bs0B_s^0 mass eigenstate. This is the first measurement of the effective lifetime in this decay mode.Comment: All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2016-017.htm

    Study of Bc+B_c^+ decays to the K+Kπ+K^+K^-\pi^+ final state and evidence for the decay Bc+χc0π+B_c^+\to\chi_{c0}\pi^+

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    A study of Bc+K+Kπ+B_c^+\to K^+K^-\pi^+ decays is performed for the first time using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb1\mathrm{fb}^{-1} collected by the LHCb experiment in pppp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 77 and 88 TeV. Evidence for the decay Bc+χc0(K+K)π+B_c^+\to\chi_{c0}(\to K^+K^-)\pi^+ is reported with a significance of 4.0 standard deviations, resulting in the measurement of σ(Bc+)σ(B+)×B(Bc+χc0π+)\frac{\sigma(B_c^+)}{\sigma(B^+)}\times\mathcal{B}(B_c^+\to\chi_{c0}\pi^+) to be (9.83.0+3.4(stat)±0.8(syst))×106(9.8^{+3.4}_{-3.0}(\mathrm{stat})\pm 0.8(\mathrm{syst}))\times 10^{-6}. Here B\mathcal{B} denotes a branching fraction while σ(Bc+)\sigma(B_c^+) and σ(B+)\sigma(B^+) are the production cross-sections for Bc+B_c^+ and B+B^+ mesons. An indication of bˉc\bar b c weak annihilation is found for the region m(Kπ+)<1.834GeV ⁣/c2m(K^-\pi^+)<1.834\mathrm{\,Ge\kern -0.1em V\!/}c^2, with a significance of 2.4 standard deviations.Comment: All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2016-022.html, link to supplemental material inserted in the reference

    Study of charmonium production in b -hadron decays and first evidence for the decay Bs0

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    Using decays to φ-meson pairs, the inclusive production of charmonium states in b-hadron decays is studied with pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Denoting byBC ≡ B(b → C X) × B(C → φφ) the inclusive branching fraction of a b hadron to a charmonium state C that decays into a pair of φ mesons, ratios RC1C2 ≡ BC1 /BC2 are determined as Rχc0ηc(1S) = 0.147 ± 0.023 ± 0.011, Rχc1ηc(1S) =0.073 ± 0.016 ± 0.006, Rχc2ηc(1S) = 0.081 ± 0.013 ± 0.005,Rχc1 χc0 = 0.50 ± 0.11 ± 0.01, Rχc2 χc0 = 0.56 ± 0.10 ± 0.01and Rηc(2S)ηc(1S) = 0.040 ± 0.011 ± 0.004. Here and below the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.Upper limits at 90% confidence level for the inclusive production of X(3872), X(3915) and χc2(2P) states are obtained as RX(3872)χc1 < 0.34, RX(3915)χc0 < 0.12 andRχc2(2P)χc2 < 0.16. Differential cross-sections as a function of transverse momentum are measured for the ηc(1S) andχc states. The branching fraction of the decay B0s → φφφ is measured for the first time, B(B0s → φφφ) = (2.15±0.54±0.28±0.21B)×10−6. Here the third uncertainty is due to the branching fraction of the decay B0s → φφ, which is used for normalization. No evidence for intermediate resonances is seen. A preferentially transverse φ polarization is observed.The measurements allow the determination of the ratio of the branching fractions for the ηc(1S) decays to φφ and p p asB(ηc(1S)→ φφ)/B(ηc(1S)→ p p) = 1.79 ± 0.14 ± 0.32

    Study of J /ψ production in Jets