905 research outputs found

    Mandating the HPV Vaccine

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    In Sarah Bishop’s argumentative essay, “Mandating the HPV Vaccine,” she offers the newest of debates in the long-standing discussion of teens and sex— the HPV vaccine. She chooses to approach her audience with a direct argument: “The HPV vaccine should be mandated [for] young teens everywhere.” Her use of ethos, pathos, and logos illustrates and develops her claims about the vaccine. Bishop draws support for her argument from current journal articles and web sites, and then furthers an appeal to ethos by identifying herself as a candidate for the vaccine. Describing the virus as “unknowingly common” among men and women, she also incites pathos in her reader: “[C]hildren have the right to be protected.” Appealing via logos, she constructs a path of evidence built on facts and testimony. To set up and then support a good argument a writer should also account for opposition. Bishop identifies her opposition as “conservative families” who might be opposed to mandating the HPV Vaccine. How does she acknowledge their voices? Does she represent them fairly? Did she include all opposing voices on the issue

    Unite Yourselves in the Name of Anywaa : Music and Anywaa Ethnic Identity in Gambella, Ethiopia

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    Ethnicity is highly politicized in northeast Africa and has been implicated in conflicts, tensions, and protests in different countries throughout the region. Various, complex factors play a role in this: political marginalization and cultural denigration of certain ethno-linguistic groups within nation-states, unequal access to resources, increasingly ethnicized cycles of violence, and overall rise in identity politics around the globe are a few. This paper aims to expand our understanding of ethnicity by examining how ethnic phenomena are manifested in expressive culture and how expressive culture reflects, shapes, and informs ethnic consciousness. I do so by exploring local music-making amongst members of the Anywaa ethnic group in Gambella region, western Ethiopia. The premise is that expressive culture such as music is not peripheral to processes of ethnicity but is intricately bound up in it. As Stokes (1994) has observed, music can reify ethnic groups through construction of musical difference and activities such as listening to, thinking about, and discoursing about music. Indexical linkages between certain cultural practices and Anywaa ethnicity, use of cultural difference to maintain ethnic boundaries, performance of difference through music-making and dance, and interpretive frameworks of listeners are all factors that assist in the construction of Anywaa ethnicity. An analysis of song lyrics, musical characteristics, and comments made by both musicians and listeners during my fieldwork indicates that music is one means by which the Anywaa define themselves as a distinct people group, cultivate a sense of cultural pride, and generate affective connections to their ethnic community. Anywaa music, then, not only reflects sentiments and ideas about Anywaa identity, but also produces Anywaa-ness, strengthens ethnic solidarity, and reinforces boundaries between the ethnic Self and Other

    Evaluating the Impact of Agriculture Youth Organizations on Grit

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    This study examined the relationship between the involvement in high school activities, such as FFA and 4-H, and grit or long-term passion and perseverance. In a quantitative approach, respondents (N=501) completed a survey comprised of the Grit-S Scale to determine their level of grit and a self-reporting section on involvement in high school activities, involvement in FFA, and involvement in 4-H. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine if there was a relationship between individual high school activities, overall high school involvement, involvement in FFA, involvement in 4-H, and an individual’s level of grit. Involvement in FFA was found to have a higher positive relationship with grit than any other activity. Independent t-Tests were conducted to determine if a difference in grit existed between those who were involved in FFA compared to those who were not, those involved in 4-H and those who were not, those highly involved in FFA or 4-H compared to those who were lowly involved. Regression Analyses were conducted to determine the influence of various high school activities on grit. The first regression and second models found all three of their individual models to be statistically significant. The third regression found two models to be statistically significant while gender was excluded. The fourth regression found all three models to be statistically significant. Recommendations for further research include conducting the same study with a larger sample of respondents involved in 4-H, conducting it on a larger scale, performing a more longitudinal study of how grit changes over time in an individual, or how organizations teach or build grit to find common themes or practices across organizations

    Effectiveness of an electronic health record embedded evidence-based testing algorithm for Clostridioides difficile infection.

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    Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) commonly impacts hospitalized patients with almost half a million cases reported in the United States annually. C. difficile colonization is more common than infection. Identifying true infection versus colonization is critical to avoiding inappropriate treatment, unnecessary exposure to antibiotics, and increased cost of care. Implementation of evidenced-based CDI testing criteria can help reduce inappropriate CDI testing and avoid the misidentification of colonized patients as true CDI. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based electronic health record (EHR) integrated CDI testing algorithm in reducing inappropriate CDI testing among adult inpatients. Methods: A retrospective review of outcomes data were analyzed to assess CDI algorithm effectiveness. Intervention: Three order rules were implemented into the EHR; (1) Order stopped if negative C. difficile result in past 7 days, (2) Order stopped if positive C. difficile result in past 28 days, and (3) Order stopped if patient has received a laxative within 48 hours. These rules were developed as “hard stops” which clinicians could not bypass. Results: A significant reduction was achieved in both the number of CDI tests performed and CDI testing rate (61% decrease; z= -19.90, ppp\u3c.001). Discussion: Implementation of an evidence-based EHR integrated CDI testing algorithm is an effective way to reduce the number of inappropriate CDI tests performed and testing rates

    Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Terminalia arjuna bark Against Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity

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    The bark of Terminalia arjuna (TA), a tropical tree, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of cardiovascular disease. TA bark is known to contain various antioxidants, and recently it has been suggested to enhance function of the normal heart as an over-the-counter supplement in the USA. The mechanism underlying cardiac actions of TA bark are unknown. Doxorubicin (DOX), a commonly-used anticancer drug, is known to cause cardiotoxicity, a major concern in chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to investigate whether aqueous extracts of TA bark (TAaq) protect the heart from DOX treatment by counteracting the oxidative stress caused by DOX. H9c2 cells, a cell line derived from the rat heart, were used for the in vitro study to examine cellular mechanis(s) of actions of TAaq. Echocardiography was used to monitor cardiac function of mice with and without co-treatment for DOX and TAaq. Our results showed that treatments of H9c2 cells with DOX (1 uM) for 24 hr caused an increase in superoxide production and damage to the growth network which were attenuated by co-treatment withTAaq (100 ug/ml). Our in vivo data showed that TAaq (50-100 ug/ml in drinking water) prevented the decrease in left ventricle function caused by multiple weekly treatments with DOX. These preliminary data suggests that TAaq protects the heart in part from oxidative stress caused by DOX

    Challenges, tensions and barriers to emancipatory models of student voice

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    The demands and values of the neo-liberal market economy in western universities has changed the terrain of higher education, re-structuring managerial practices and processes and affecting the role and functions of the university and the beliefs about who can participate (Lambert, 2009). The resulting model of mass higher education is accompanied with increasing demands of students and the ideology of the student as a paying ‘customer’ or ‘consumer’, directly impacting on pedagogic practices, principles and relations between staff and students. The ‘student as consumer’ model limits the role and participation of student voice and has come under increased scrutiny with a number of other models or metaphors suggested to help define the student –university relationship such as ‘students as co-producers’ or the concept of ‘communities of practice’ in learning (McCulloch, 2009; Streetling and Wise, 2009). A co-producer model encourages reflection and cultural change to approaches in teaching and learning and quality enhancement processes; at an institutional level to decision making and policy formation; and a subject level to direct participation and membership of committees, review panels and validations. The extent to which students ‘buy-in’ to work as partners with staff in enquiry and the willingness of staff to engage in ‘power sharing’ are key determinants in redefining the student–lecturer relationship (Bishop et al., 2012). This presentation will explore and discuss the challenges, tensions and barriers facing emancipatory models of working, for what is ultimately an institutional responsibility for managing ongoing improvement

    Control of T Cell Metabolism by Cytokines and Hormones

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    Dynamic, coordinated changes in metabolic pathway activity underpin the protective and inflammatory activity of T cells, through provision of energy and biosynthetic precursors for effector functions, as well as direct effects of metabolic enzymes, intermediates and end-products on signaling pathways and transcriptional mechanisms. Consequently, it has become increasingly clear that the metabolic status of the tissue microenvironment directly influences T cell activity, with changes in nutrient and/or metabolite abundance leading to dysfunctional T cell metabolism and interlinked immune function. Emerging evidence now indicates that additional signals are integrated by T cells to determine their overall metabolic phenotype, including those arising from interaction with cytokines and hormones in their environment. The impact of these on T cell metabolism, the mechanisms involved and the pathological implications are discussed in this review article

    An Investigation into the Effect of Increasing Target Size for Visual Sensitivity Measurement in Normals and in Early Glaucoma

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    The clinical standard method of measurement for clinical visual sensitivity is currently Standard Automated Perimetry with a size III target (SAP III). However, there are many factors that can make the results unreliable. While there is literature that confirms the benefit of increasing target size for measurement of visual sensitivity in the later stages of glaucoma, there is little literature that looks into the effect of increasing target size for the measurement of visual sensitivity in early glaucoma. Furthermore, the effect of increasing target size for the measurement of visual sensitivity in normals is largely undefined. We performed 2 studies to determine the effect of increasing target size for the perimetric measurement of both normals and in participants with very early glaucoma. In the first study (chapter 2), 40 normal participants (one study eye) performed 3 full threshold visual fields at 2 separate visits, no more than 90 days apart. The target sizes used were size III (0.43° diameter), size V (1.72° diameter) and size VI (3.44° diameter). We investigated the interaction of the different target sizes by regressing the average field threshold for each participant against age in both decibels and candelas. We found an expected difference in sensitivities between the different target sizes for the decibel analysis, but an unexpected difference in thresholds between the target sizes for the candela analysis. Possible reasons for this unexpected difference in total light energy are discussed. In the second study (chapter 3) we investigated the effect of increasing target size in 17 participants with very early glaucoma (perimetric mean deviation of equal to, or better than, -4.0dB). Each participant underwent 3 full threshold visual field tests, using 3 different target sizes, at 2 separate visits (no more than 90 days apart). We computed empirical probability plots for each participant and target size: Size III (0.43° diameter), size V (1.72° diameter) and size VI (3.44° diameter), where normal percentile limits were based on the first study - chapter 2. We then compared the number of normal and abnormal test locations at each defect depth (5%, 2%, 1% and 0.5%) between SITA-Std and the 3 different target sizes (full threshold) using a repeated measures ANOVA. We found there to be no statistical difference in the number of abnormal locations detected between SITA-Std and the 3 target sizes. However, when analysing the empirical probability plots there was an apparent clinical difference between the locations of abnormality detected between SITA-Std and the larger size VI target, with the size VI giving less consistent defect locations

    Students’ Use and Perceptions of Social Networking Technologies: Connections to Reading, Reading Ability, and Self-Perception

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    Abstract This study was undertaken to examine traditional forms of literacy and the newest form of literacy: technology. Students who have trouble reading traditional forms of literacy tend to have lower self-esteem. This research intended to explore if students with reading difficulties and, therefore, lower self-esteem, could use Social Networking Technologies including text messaging, Facebook, email, blogging, MySpace, or Twitter to help improve their self-esteem, in a field where spelling mistakes and grammatical errors are commonplace, if not encouraged. A collective case study was undertaken based on surveys, individual interviews, and gathered documents from 3 students 9-13 years old. The data collected in this study were analyzed and interpreted using qualitative methods. These cases were individually examined for themes, which were then analyzed across the cases to examine points of convergence and divergence in the data. The research found that students with reading difficulties do not necessarily have poor self-esteem, as prior research has suggested (Carr, Borkowski, & Maxwell, 1991; Feiler, & Logan, 2007; Meece, Wigfield, & Eccles, 1990; Pintirch & DeGroot, 1990; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991). All of the participants who had reading difficulties, were found both through interviews and the CFSEI-3 self-esteem test (Battle, 2002) to have average self-esteem, although their parents all stated that their child felt poorly about their academic abilities. The research also found that using Social Networking Technologies helped improve the self-esteem of the majority of the participants both socially and academically

    “IT’S JUST WHAT WE SAW IN THE MOVIE”: REFUGEES ENCOUNTER U.S. MEDIA

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    This dissertation considers how refugees encounter, interpret, and use American media before, during, and after their relocation to the United States. An examination of insights provided by seventy-four oral history interviews with refugees from Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), Iraq and Somalia, as well as twelve interviews with resettlement administrators in the four states that accepted the most refugees in 2012—Texas, California, New York and Pennsylvania—reveals that American-made films, television programs, websites, government-produced orientation texts, and news journalism are meaningful components of refugee relocation to the U.S. Supported by methodologies of ethnography and rhetorical analysis, this oral history project considers the American media that refugees encounter long before their relocation, and how they may understand these media as indicators, exaggerations, or misleading evidence of what the U.S. is like. The narrators discuss the types of media and information they were given during the weeks leading up to their relocation, and how this new knowledge may or may not have informed their move to the U.S. This project also explores the kinds of media that are made available to refugees in the weeks immediately following their arrival in the U.S., either during federallymandated post-arrival orientations or in individual pursuits. This work advances the notion that resettlement is a long-term, ongoing process as it considers how refugees use U.S. media long after their resettlement. This project attends to underprivileged immigration and problematizes sanguine American immigration mythologies while simultaneously providing understanding that can be incorporated into resettlement agencies’ future planning and education initiatives. The object is thus both theoretical and pragmatic; in addition to contributing to the existing research a deeper understanding of the ways media serve as tools or obstacles for enculturation throughout refugee relocation, this dissertation also provides pertinent, useful insights for the directors of future refugee orientation education
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