870 research outputs found

    The development and internal pilot trial of a digital physical activity and emotional well-being intervention (Kidney BEAM) for people with chronic kidney disease

    Get PDF
    From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications RouterHistory: received 2023-09-15, registration 2023-12-20, accepted 2023-12-20, epub 2024-01-06, online 2024-01-06, collection 2024-12Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge the work of the various research teams at each site and thank all the participants involved in this research. This research was prospectively registered NCT04872933.Publication status: PublishedPelagia Koufaki - ORCID: 0000-0002-1406-3729 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1406-3729This trial assessed the feasibility and acceptability of Kidney BEAM, a physical activity and emotional well-being self-management digital health intervention (DHI) for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which offers live and on-demand physical activity sessions, educational blogs and videos, and peer support. In this mixed-methods, multicentre randomised waitlist-controlled internal pilot, adults with established CKD were recruited from five NHS hospitals and randomised 1:1 to Kidney BEAM or waitlist control. Feasibility outcomes were based upon a priori progression criteria. Acceptability was primarily explored via individual semi-structured interviews (n = 15). Of 763 individuals screened, n = 519 (68%, 95% CI 65 to 71%) were eligible. Of those eligible, n = 303 (58%, 95% CI 54–63%) did not respond to an invitation to participate by the end of the pilot period. Of the 216 responders, 50 (23%, 95% CI 18–29%) consented. Of the 42 randomised, n = 22 (10 (45%) male; 49 ± 16 years; 14 (64%) White British) were allocated to Kidney BEAM and n = 20 (12 (55%) male; 56 ± 11 years; 15 (68%) White British) to the waitlist control group. Overall, n = 15 (30%, 95% CI 18–45%) withdrew during the pilot phase. Participants completed a median of 14 (IQR 5–21) sessions. At baseline, 90–100% of outcome data (patient reported outcome measures and a remotely conducted physical function test) were completed and 62–83% completed at 12 weeks follow-up. Interview data revealed that remote trial procedures were acceptable. Participants’ reported that Kidney BEAM increased their opportunity and motivation to be physically active, however, lack of time remained an ongoing barrier to engagement with the DHI. An randomised controlled trial of Kidney BEAM is feasible and acceptable, with adaptations to increase recruitment, retention and engagement. Trial registration NCT04872933. Date of first registration 05/05/2021.This trial was funded by a grant from Kidney Research UK. Funding for Kidney Beam is currently supported by the four major UK charities: Kidney Research UK, Kidney Care UK, National Kidney Federation and the UK Kidney Association. HMLY is funded by the NIHR [NIHR302926]. Part of this research was carried out at the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care. The funders had no role in the design, collection, analysis, interpretation of the data, or writing of this protocol.pubpu

    Observational and genetic associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and cancer:A UK Biobank and international consortia study

    Get PDF
    Background: The association of fitness with cancer risk is not clear. Methods: We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of lung, colorectal, endometrial, breast, and prostate cancer in a subset of UK Biobank participants who completed a submaximal fitness test in 2009-12 (N = 72,572). We also investigated relationships using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR), odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using the inverse-variance weighted method. Results: After a median of 11 years of follow-up, 4290 cancers of interest were diagnosed. A 3.5 ml O 2⋅min −1⋅kg −1 total-body mass increase in fitness (equivalent to 1 metabolic equivalent of task (MET), approximately 0.5 standard deviation (SD)) was associated with lower risks of endometrial (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73–0.89), colorectal (0.94, 0.90–0.99), and breast cancer (0.96, 0.92–0.99). In MR analyses, a 0.5 SD increase in genetically predicted O 2⋅min −1⋅kg −1 fat-free mass was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.98). After adjusting for adiposity, both the observational and genetic associations were attenuated. Discussion: Higher fitness levels may reduce risks of endometrial, colorectal, and breast cancer, though relationships with adiposity are complex and may mediate these relationships. Increasing fitness, including via changes in body composition, may be an effective strategy for cancer prevention.</p

    The development and internal pilot trial of a digital physical activity and emotional well-being intervention (Kidney BEAM) for people with chronic kidney disease

    No full text
    This trial assessed the feasibility and acceptability of Kidney BEAM, a physical activity and emotional well-being self-management digital health intervention (DHI) for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which offers live and on-demand physical activity sessions, educational blogs and videos, and peer support. In this mixed-methods, multicentre randomised waitlist-controlled internal pilot, adults with established CKD were recruited from five NHS hospitals and randomised 1:1 to Kidney BEAM or waitlist control. Feasibility outcomes were based upon a priori progression criteria. Acceptability was primarily explored via individual semi-structured interviews (n = 15). Of 763 individuals screened, n = 519 (68%, 95% CI 65 to 71%) were eligible. Of those eligible, n = 303 (58%, 95% CI 54–63%) did not respond to an invitation to participate by the end of the pilot period. Of the 216 responders, 50 (23%, 95% CI 18–29%) consented. Of the 42 randomised, n = 22 (10 (45%) male; 49 ± 16 years; 14 (64%) White British) were allocated to Kidney BEAM and n = 20 (12 (55%) male; 56 ± 11 years; 15 (68%) White British) to the waitlist control group. Overall, n = 15 (30%, 95% CI 18–45%) withdrew during the pilot phase. Participants completed a median of 14 (IQR 5–21) sessions. At baseline, 90–100% of outcome data (patient reported outcome measures and a remotely conducted physical function test) were completed and 62–83% completed at 12 weeks follow-up. Interview data revealed that remote trial procedures were acceptable. Participants’ reported that Kidney BEAM increased their opportunity and motivation to be physically active, however, lack of time remained an ongoing barrier to engagement with the DHI. An randomised controlled trial of Kidney BEAM is feasible and acceptable, with adaptations to increase recruitment, retention and engagement. Trial registration NCT04872933. Date of first registration 05/05/2021.</p

    Investigation of hospital discharge cases and SARS-CoV-2 introduction into Lothian care homes

    Get PDF
    Background The first epidemic wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Scotland resulted in high case numbers and mortality in care homes. In Lothian, over one-third of care homes reported an outbreak, while there was limited testing of hospital patients discharged to care homes. Aim To investigate patients discharged from hospitals as a source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction into care homes during the first epidemic wave. Methods A clinical review was performed for all patients discharges from hospitals to care homes from 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020. Episodes were ruled out based on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) test history, clinical assessment at discharge, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data and an infectious period of 14 days. Clinical samples were processed for WGS, and consensus genomes generated were used for analysis using Cluster Investigation and Virus Epidemiological Tool software. Patient timelines were obtained using electronic hospital records. Findings In total, 787 patients discharged from hospitals to care homes were identified. Of these, 776 (99%) were ruled out for subsequent introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into care homes. However, for 10 episodes, the results were inconclusive as there was low genomic diversity in consensus genomes or no sequencing data were available. Only one discharge episode had a genomic, time and location link to positive cases during hospital admission, leading to 10 positive cases in their care home. Conclusion The majority of patients discharged from hospitals were ruled out for introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into care homes, highlighting the importance of screening all new admissions when faced with a novel emerging virus and no available vaccine

    Measurement of CP asymmetries and branching fraction ratios of B− decays to two charm mesons

    Get PDF
    The CPCP asymmetries of seven BB^- decays to two charm mesons are measured using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9fb19\text{fb}^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected by the LHCb experiment. Decays involving a D0D^{*0} or DsD^{*-}_s meson are analysed by reconstructing only the D0D^0 or DsD^-_s decay products. This paper presents the first measurement of ACP(BDsD0)\mathcal{A}^{CP}(B^- \rightarrow D^{*-}_s D^0) and ACP(BDsD0)\mathcal{A}^{CP}(B^- \rightarrow D^{-}_s D^{*0}), and the most precise measurement of the other five CPCP asymmetries. There is no evidence of CPCP violation in any of the analysed decays. Additionally, two ratios between branching fractions of selected decays are measured.The CP asymmetries of seven B^{−} decays to two charm mesons are measured using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb1^{−1} of proton-proton collisions collected by the LHCb experiment. Decays involving a D0^{*0} or Ds {D}_s^{\ast -} meson are analysed by reconstructing only the D0^{0} or Ds {D}_s^{-} decay products. This paper presents the first measurement of ACP \mathcal{A} ^{CP}(B^{−}Ds {D}_s^{\ast -} D0^{0}) and ACP \mathcal{A} ^{CP}(B^{−}Ds {D}_s^{-} D0^{∗0}), and the most precise measurement of the other five CP asymmetries. There is no evidence of CP violation in any of the analysed decays. Additionally, two ratios between branching fractions of selected decays are measured.[graphic not available: see fulltext]The CPCP asymmetries of seven BB^- decays to two charm mesons are measured using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb19\text{ fb}^{-1} of proton-proton collisions collected by the LHCb experiment. Decays involving a D0D^{*0} or DsD^{*-}_s meson are analysed by reconstructing only the D0D^0 or DsD^-_s decay products. This paper presents the first measurement of ACP(BDsD0)\mathcal{A}^{CP}(B^- \rightarrow D^{*-}_s D^0) and ACP(BDsD0)\mathcal{A}^{CP}(B^- \rightarrow D^{-}_s D^{*0}), and the most precise measurement of the other five CPCP asymmetries. There is no evidence of CPCP violation in any of the analysed decays. Additionally, two ratios between branching fractions of selected decays are measured

    Genome-wide Interaction Study with Smoking for Colorectal Cancer Risk Identifies Novel Genetic Loci Related to Tumor Suppression, Inflammation, and Immune Response

    No full text
    Tobacco smoking is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, genetically defined population subgroups may have increased susceptibility to smoking-related effects on colorectal cancer. METHODS: A genome-wide interaction scan was performed including 33,756 colorectal cancer cases and 44,346 controls from three genetic consortia. RESULTS: Evidence of an interaction was observed between smoking status (ever vs. never smokers) and a locus on 3p12.1 (rs9880919, P = 4.58 × 10-8), with higher associated risk in subjects carrying the GG genotype [OR, 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20-1.30] compared with the other genotypes (OR <1.17 for GA and AA). Among ever smokers, we observed interactions between smoking intensity (increase in 10 cigarettes smoked per day) and two loci on 6p21.33 (rs4151657, P = 1.72 × 10-8) and 8q24.23 (rs7005722, P = 2.88 × 10-8). Subjects carrying the rs4151657 TT genotype showed higher risk (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16) compared with the other genotypes (OR <1.06 for TC and CC). Similarly, higher risk was observed among subjects carrying the rs7005722 AA genotype (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.28) compared with the other genotypes (OR <1.13 for AC and CC). Functional annotation revealed that SNPs in 3p12.1 and 6p21.33 loci were located in regulatory regions, and were associated with expression levels of nearby genes. Genetic models predicting gene expression revealed that smoking parameters were associated with lower colorectal cancer risk with higher expression levels of CADM2 (3p12.1) and ATF6B (6p21.33). CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified novel genetic loci that may modulate the risk for colorectal cancer of smoking status and intensity, linked to tumor suppression and immune response. IMPACT: These findings can guide potential prevention treatments

    Genomic–transcriptomic evolution in lung cancer and metastasis

    Get PDF
    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) fuels lung cancer evolution, which leads to immune evasion and resistance to therapy. Here, using paired whole-exome and RNA sequencing data, we investigate intratumour transcriptomic diversity in 354 non-small cell lung cancer tumours from 347 out of the first 421 patients prospectively recruited into the TRACERx study. Analyses of 947 tumour regions, representing both primary and metastatic disease, alongside 96 tumour-adjacent normal tissue samples implicate the transcriptome as a major source of phenotypic variation. Gene expression levels and ITH relate to patterns of positive and negative selection during tumour evolution. We observe frequent copy number-independent allele-specific expression that is linked to epigenomic dysfunction. Allele-specific expression can also result in genomic–transcriptomic parallel evolution, which converges on cancer gene disruption. We extract signatures of RNA single-base substitutions and link their aetiology to the activity of the RNA-editing enzymes ADAR and APOBEC3A, thereby revealing otherwise undetected ongoing APOBEC activity in tumours. Characterizing the transcriptomes of primary–metastatic tumour pairs, we combine multiple machine-learning approaches that leverage genomic and transcriptomic variables to link metastasis-seeding potential to the evolutionary context of mutations and increased proliferation within primary tumour regions. These results highlight the interplay between the genome and transcriptome in influencing ITH, lung cancer evolution and metastasis

    Diastolic Blood Pressure Threshold During Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Survival Outcomes: A Multicenter Validation Study

    No full text
    OBJECTIVES: Arterial diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than 25 mm Hg in infants and greater than 30 mm Hg in children greater than 1 year old during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was associated with survival to hospital discharge in one prospective study. We sought to validate these potential hemodynamic targets in a larger multicenter cohort. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Eighteen PICUs in the ICU-RESUScitation prospective trial from October 2016 to March 2020. PATIENTS: Children less than or equal to 18 years old with CPR greater than 30 seconds and invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring during CPR. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Invasive BP waveform data and Utstein-style CPR data were collected, including prearrest patient characteristics, intra-arrest interventions, and outcomes. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge, and secondary outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic outcome. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust error estimates evaluated the association of DBP greater than 25 mm Hg in infants and greater than 30 mm Hg in older children with these outcomes. Among 1,129 children with inhospital cardiac arrests, 413 had evaluable DBP data. Overall, 85.5% of the patients attained thresholds of mean DBP greater than or equal to 25 mm Hg in infants and greater than or equal to 30 mm Hg in older children. Initial return of circulation occurred in 91.5% and 25% by placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenator. Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 58.6%, and survival with favorable neurologic outcome in 55.4% (i.e. 94.6% of survivors had favorable neurologic outcomes). Mean DBP greater than 25 mm Hg for infants and greater than 30 mm Hg for older children was significantly associated with survival to discharge (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.32; 1.01-1.74; p = 0.03) and ROSC (aRR, 1.49; 1.12-1.97; p = 0.002) but did not reach significance for survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic outcome (aRR, 1.30; 0.98-1.72; p = 0.051). CONCLUSIONS: These validation data demonstrate that achieving mean DBP during CPR greater than 25 mm Hg for infants and greater than 30 mm Hg for older children is associated with higher rates of survival to hospital discharge, providing potential targets for DBP during CPR

    Survival With Favorable Neurologic Outcome and Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Following In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children With Cardiac Disease Compared With Noncardiac Disease

    No full text
    OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between outcome and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in children with medical cardiac, surgical cardiac, or noncardiac disease. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a multicenter cluster randomized trial, the ICU-RESUScitation Project (NCT02837497, 2016-2021). SETTING: Eighteen PICUs. PATIENTS: Children less than or equal to 18 years old and greater than or equal to 37 weeks postconceptual age receiving chest compressions (CC) of any duration during the study. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 1,100 children with IHCA, there were 273 medical cardiac (25%), 383 surgical cardiac (35%), and 444 noncardiac (40%) cases. Favorable neurologic outcome was defined as no more than moderate disability or no worsening from baseline Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category at discharge. The medical cardiac group had lower odds of survival with favorable neurologic outcomes compared with the noncardiac group (48% vs 55%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] [95% CI], aOR 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.87], p = 0.008) and surgical cardiac group (48% vs 58%; aOR 0.64 [95% CI, 0.45-0.9], p = 0.01). We failed to identify a difference in favorable outcomes between surgical cardiac and noncardiac groups. We also failed to identify differences in CC rate, CC fraction, ventilation rate, intra-arrest average target diastolic or systolic blood pressure between medical cardiac versus noncardiac, and surgical cardiac versus noncardiac groups. The surgical cardiac group had lower odds of achieving target CC depth compared to the noncardiac group (OR 0.15 [95% CI, 0.02-0.52], p = 0.001). We failed to identify a difference in the percentage of patients achieving target CC depth when comparing medical cardiac versus noncardiac groups. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric IHCA, medical cardiac patients had lower odds of survival with favorable neurologic outcomes compared with noncardiac and surgical cardiac patients. We failed to find differences in CPR quality between medical cardiac and noncardiac patients, but there were lower odds of achieving target CC depth in surgical cardiac compared to noncardiac patients
    corecore