643 research outputs found

    WAGE DETERMINATION: PRIVATISED, NEW PRIVATE AND STATE OWNED COMPANIES. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PANEL DATA

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    This paper examines the determinants of wage pressure in large companies, including ownership characteristics and the impact of regional labour markets. By using a panel of 329 Polish largest firms during the period 1997- 2001, we find evidence of rent sharing activities, however there is also asymmetry in quasi rent elasticity of wages. The wage setting mechanism seems to differ between new private companies, privatised companies, state firms and mixed ownership. In particular, wages in state firms are highly responsive to regional labour market conditions, while firms in other sectors are not. Rent sharing is visible in both the state sector and new private companies, yet several specific characteristics differ. On the other hand, quasi rent elasticity appears to be suppressed in privatised companies.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/39970/2/wp584.pd

    WHILE LABOUR HOARDING MAY BE OVER, INSIDERS’ CONTROL IS NOT. DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYMENT GROWTH IN POLISH LARGE FIRMS, 1996-2001.

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    This paper examines the determinants of employment changes using a panel of Polish large firms during the period 1996-2001. We investigate the impact of wages, output growth, investment, firm size and sectors upon employment, focusing on the asymmetry hypothesis. We find that investment plays an important role in enhancing employment growth. We also notice that employment dynamics is not affected by alternative wages and therefore appears consistent with the ‘right to manage’ model. Furthermore, unlike the early transition period, we can confirm that employment adjusts to positive sales growth, not just to decline as found in studies on earlier periods (K?ll?, 1998). This reflects that labour hoarding can no longer be a factor, which decreased employment elasticity in times of positive demand shocks. Interestingly, large state companies appear to cut employment in response to output growth, when one controls for investment. A result, which may be consistent with the insiders (employee) control model.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/39979/3/wp593.pd

    Vocabulary is important for some, but not all reading skills

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    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children of 8-10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for unique variance in exception word reading and reading comprehension, but not text reading accuracy, decoding and regular word reading. Consistent with these data, children with poor reading comprehension exhibited oral vocabulary weaknesses and read fewer exception words correctly. These findings demonstrate that oral vocabulary is associated with some, but not all reading skills. Results are discussed in terms of current models of reading development

    WHILE LABOUR HOARDING MAY BE OVER, INSIDERS’ CONTROL IS NOT. DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYMENT GROWTH IN POLISH LARGE FIRMS, 1996-2001.

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    This paper examines the determinants of employment changes using a panel of Polish large firms during the period 1996-2001. We investigate the impact of wages, output growth, investment, firm size and sectors upon employment, focusing on the asymmetry hypothesis. We find that investment plays an important role in enhancing employment growth. We also notice that employment dynamics is not affected by alternative wages and therefore appears consistent with the ‘right to manage’ model. Furthermore, unlike the early transition period, we can confirm that employment adjusts to positive sales growth, not just to decline as found in studies on earlier periods (K?ll?, 1998). This reflects that labour hoarding can no longer be a factor, which decreased employment elasticity in times of positive demand shocks. Interestingly, large state companies appear to cut employment in response to output growth, when one controls for investment. A result, which may be consistent with the insiders (employee) control model.EMPLOYMENT, TRANSITION, ASSYMETRY, PRIVATISATION, INSIDERS

    WAGE DETERMINATION: PRIVATISED, NEW PRIVATE AND STATE OWNED COMPANIES. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PANEL DATA

    Get PDF
    This paper examines the determinants of wage pressure in large companies, including ownership characteristics and the impact of regional labour markets. By using a panel of 329 Polish largest firms during the period 1997- 2001, we find evidence of rent sharing activities, however there is also asymmetry in quasi rent elasticity of wages. The wage setting mechanism seems to differ between new private companies, privatised companies, state firms and mixed ownership. In particular, wages in state firms are highly responsive to regional labour market conditions, while firms in other sectors are not. Rent sharing is visible in both the state sector and new private companies, yet several specific characteristics differ. On the other hand, quasi rent elasticity appears to be suppressed in privatised companies.wages, quasi-rents, de novo firms, privatisation, unemployment

    Financial Constraints in Investment - Foreign Versus Domestic Firms. Panel Data Results From Estonia, 1995-1999.

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    Using data from Estonian manufacturing firms during the period 1995-1999 we apply panel data techniques, in particular the Arellano-Bond (1991) method to investigate the investment behaviour. We employ the model of optimal capital accumulation in the presence of convex adjustment costs. We find that the domestic companies seem to be more financial constrained than those with the presence of foreign investors. Furthermore we find that smaller firms are more constrained than their larger counterparts.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/40034/3/wp648.pd

    Financial Constraints in Investment - Foreign Versus Domestic Firms. Panel Data Results From Estonia, 1995-1999.

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    Using data from Estonian manufacturing firms during the period 1995-1999 we apply panel data techniques, in particular the Arellano-Bond (1991) method to investigate the investment behaviour. We employ the model of optimal capital accumulation in the presence of convex adjustment costs. We find that the domestic companies seem to be more financial constrained than those with the presence of foreign investors. Furthermore we find that smaller firms are more constrained than their larger counterparts.Investment, Cash Flow, Foreign Ownership, Firm Size, Estonia

    Investigating orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in poor comprehenders

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    This study compared orthographic and semantic aspects of word learning in children who differed in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders and controls matched for age (9-10 years), nonverbal ability and decoding skill were trained to pronounce 20 visually presented nonwords, 10 in a consistent way and 10 in an inconsistent way. They then had an opportunity to infer the meanings of the new words from story context. Orthographic learning was measured in three ways: the number of trials taken to learn to pronounce nonwords correctly, orthographic choice and spelling. Across all measures, consistent items were easier than inconsistent items and poor comprehenders did not differ from control children. Semantic learning was assessed on three occasions, using a nonword-picture matching task. While poor comprehenders showed equivalent semantic learning to controls immediately after exposure to nonword meaning, this knowledge was not well-retained over time. Results are discussed in terms of the language and reading skills of poor comprehenders and in relation to current models of reading development

    The identities and social roles of people with an intellectual disability: challenging dominant cultural worldviews, values and mythologies

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    Intellectual disability is commonly conceptualised as stigmatised identity with which one has to live. However, within the literature the notion of a damaged identity is contested. The aim of this research was to explore the social construction of intellectual disability, with an emphasis on the identities and social roles of people with an intellectual disability. Informed by a contextualist perspective, this research was conducted within a participatory framework. The co-researchers involved in this research were 18 members of an advocacy agency. Photovoice and conversational interviewing were used to collect data and causal layered analysis was used to deconstruct the data. Analysis of the interactions that emerged across the causal layers revealed a complex dynamic of worldviews which served to construct people with an intellectual disability as incompetent, inherently different and not quite human. For genuine, transformative change to occur, developing an awareness and understanding of social processes, such as dehumanisation, is crucial

    Inherited labour hoarding, insiders and employment growth:panel data results : Poland, 1996-2002

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    Using panel data pertaining to large Polish (non-financial) firms this paper examines the determinants of employment change during the period 1996-2002. Paying particular attention to the asymmetry hypothesis we investigate the impact of own wages, outside wages, output growth, regional characteristics and sectoral affiliation on the evolution of employment. In keeping with the 'right to manage' model we find that employment dynamics are not affected negatively by alternative wages. Furthermore, in contrast to the early transition period, we find evidence that employment levels respond to positive sales growth (in all but state firms). The early literature, (e.g. Kollo, 1998) found that labour hoarding lowered employment elasticities in the presence of positive demand shocks. Our findings suggest that inherited labour hoarding may no longer be a factor. We argue that the present pattern of employment adjustment is better explained by the role of insiders. This tentative conclusion is hinged on the contrasting behaviour of state and privatised companies and the similar behaviour of privatised and new private companies. We conclude that lower responsiveness of employment to both positive and negative changes in revenue in state firms is consistent with the proposition that rent sharing by insiders is stronger in the state sector
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