3,287 research outputs found

### Schr\"odinger operator on homogeneous metric trees: spectrum in gaps

The paper studies the spectral properties of the Schr\"odinger operator
$A_{gV} = A_0 + gV$ on a homogeneous rooted metric tree, with a decaying
real-valued potential $V$ and a coupling constant $g\ge 0$. The spectrum of the
free Laplacian $A_0 = -\Delta$ has a band-gap structure with a single
eigenvalue of infinite multiplicity in the middle of each finite gap. The
perturbation $gV$ gives rise to extra eigenvalues in the gaps. These
eigenvalues are monotone functions of $g$ if the potential $V$ has a fixed
sign. Assuming that the latter condition is satisfied and that $V$ is
symmetric, i.e. depends on the distance to the root of the tree, we carry out a
detailed asymptotic analysis of the counting function of the discrete
eigenvalues in the limit $g\to\infty$. Depending on the sign and decay of $V$,
this asymptotics is either of the Weyl type or is completely determined by the
behaviour of $V$ at infinity.Comment: AMS LaTex file, 47 page

### Process membership in asynchronous environments

The development of reliable distributed software is simplified by the ability to assume a fail-stop failure model. The emulation of such a model in an asynchronous distributed environment is discussed. The solution proposed, called Strong-GMP, can be supported through a highly efficient protocol, and was implemented as part of a distributed systems software project at Cornell University. The precise definition of the problem, the protocol, correctness proofs, and an analysis of costs are addressed

### Stability of the magnetic Schr\"odinger operator in a waveguide

The spectrum of the Schr\"odinger operator in a quantum waveguide is known to
be unstable in two and three dimensions. Any enlargement of the waveguide
produces eigenvalues beneath the continuous spectrum. Also if the waveguide is
bent eigenvalues will arise below the continuous spectrum. In this paper a
magnetic field is added into the system. The spectrum of the magnetic
Schr\"odinger operator is proved to be stable under small local deformations
and also under small bending of the waveguide. The proof includes a magnetic
Hardy-type inequality in the waveguide, which is interesting in its own

### Exact Casimir Interaction Between Semitransparent Spheres and Cylinders

A multiple scattering formulation is used to calculate the force, arising
from fluctuating scalar fields, between distinct bodies described by
$\delta$-function potentials, so-called semitransparent bodies. (In the limit
of strong coupling, a semitransparent boundary becomes a Dirichlet one.) We
obtain expressions for the Casimir energies between disjoint parallel
semitransparent cylinders and between disjoint semitransparent spheres. In the
limit of weak coupling, we derive power series expansions for the energy, which
can be exactly summed, so that explicit, very simple, closed-form expressions
are obtained in both cases. The proximity force theorem holds when the objects
are almost touching, but is subject to large corrections as the bodies are
moved further apart.Comment: 5 pages, 4 eps figures; expanded discussion of previous work and
additional references added, minor typos correcte

### Strong contraction of the representations of the three dimensional Lie algebras

For any Inonu-Wigner contraction of a three dimensional Lie algebra we
construct the corresponding contractions of representations. Our method is
quite canonical in the sense that in all cases we deal with realizations of the
representations on some spaces of functions; we contract the differential
operators on those spaces along with the representation spaces themselves by
taking certain pointwise limit of functions. We call such contractions strong
contractions. We show that this pointwise limit gives rise to a direct limit
space. Many of these contractions are new and in other examples we give a
different proof

### Condition for equivalence of q-deformed and anharmonic oscillators

The equivalence between the q-deformed harmonic oscillator and a specific anharmonic oscillator model, by which some new insight into the problem of the physical meaning of the parameter q can be attained, are discussed

### Maslov index, Lagrangians, Mapping Class Groups and TQFT

Given a mapping class f of an oriented surface Sigma and a lagrangian lambda
in the first homology of Sigma, we define an integer n_{lambda}(f). We use
n_{lambda}(f) (mod 4) to describe a universal central extension of the mapping
class group of Sigma as an index-four subgroup of the extension constructed
from the Maslov index of triples of lagrangian subspaces in the homology of the
surface. We give two descriptions of this subgroup. One is topological using
surgery, the other is homological and builds on work of Turaev and work of
Walker. Some applications to TQFT are discussed. They are based on the fact
that our construction allows one to precisely describe how the phase factors
that arise in the skein theory approach to TQFT-representations of the mapping
class group depend on the choice of a lagrangian on the surface.Comment: 31 pages, 11 Figures. to appear in Forum Mathematicu

### Fisheye Consistency: Keeping Data in Synch in a Georeplicated World

Over the last thirty years, numerous consistency conditions for replicated
data have been proposed and implemented. Popular examples of such conditions
include linearizability (or atomicity), sequential consistency, causal
consistency, and eventual consistency. These consistency conditions are usually
defined independently from the computing entities (nodes) that manipulate the
replicated data; i.e., they do not take into account how computing entities
might be linked to one another, or geographically distributed. To address this
lack, as a first contribution, this paper introduces the notion of proximity
graph between computing nodes. If two nodes are connected in this graph, their
operations must satisfy a strong consistency condition, while the operations
invoked by other nodes are allowed to satisfy a weaker condition. The second
contribution is the use of such a graph to provide a generic approach to the
hybridization of data consistency conditions into the same system. We
illustrate this approach on sequential consistency and causal consistency, and
present a model in which all data operations are causally consistent, while
operations by neighboring processes in the proximity graph are sequentially
consistent. The third contribution of the paper is the design and the proof of
a distributed algorithm based on this proximity graph, which combines
sequential consistency and causal consistency (the resulting condition is
called fisheye consistency). In doing so the paper not only extends the domain
of consistency conditions, but provides a generic provably correct solution of
direct relevance to modern georeplicated systems

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