15,791 research outputs found

    Exact solution of Riemann--Hilbert problem for a correlation function of the XY spin chain

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    A correlation function of the XY spin chain is studied at zero temperature. This is called the Emptiness Formation Probability (EFP) and is expressed by the Fredholm determinant in the thermodynamic limit. We formulate the associated Riemann--Hilbert problem and solve it exactly. The EFP is shown to decay in Gaussian.Comment: 7 pages, to be published in J. Phys. Soc. Jp

    Competing Quantum Orderings in Cuprate Superconductors: A Minimal Model

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    We present a minimal model for cuprate superconductors. At the unrestricted mean-field level, the model produces homogeneous superconductivity at large doping, striped superconductivity in the underdoped regime and various antiferromagnetic phases at low doping and for high temperatures. On the underdoped side, the superconductor is intrinsically inhomogeneous and global phase coherence is achieved through Josephson-like coupling of the superconducting stripes. The model is applied to calculate experimentally measurable ARPES spectra.Comment: 5 pages, 4 eps included figure

    Dosage compensation in birds

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    AbstractThe Z and W sex chromosomes of birds have evolved independently from the mammalian X and Y chromosomes [1]. Unlike mammals, female birds are heterogametic (ZW), while males are homogametic (ZZ). Therefore male birds, like female mammals, carry a double dose of sex-linked genes relative to the other sex. Other animals with nonhomologous sex chromosomes possess ‚Äúdosage compensation‚ÄĚ systems to equalize the expression of sex-linked genes. Dosage compensation occurs in animals as diverse as mammals, insects, and nematodes, although the mechanisms involved differ profoundly [2]. In birds, however, it is widely accepted that dosage compensation does not occur [3‚Äď5], and the differential expression of Z-linked genes has been suggested to underlie the avian sex-determination mechanism [6]. Here we show equivalent expression of at least six of nine Z chromosome genes in male and female chick embryos by using real-time quantitative PCR [7]. Only the Z-linked ScII gene, whose ortholog in Caenorhabditis elegans plays a crucial role in dosage compensation [8], escapes compensation by this assay. Our results imply that the majority of Z-linked genes in the chicken are dosage compensated

    Models of granular ratchets

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    We study a general model of granular Brownian ratchet consisting of an asymmetric object moving on a line and surrounded by a two-dimensional granular gas, which in turn is coupled to an external random driving force. We discuss the two resulting Boltzmann equations describing the gas and the object in the dilute limit and obtain a closed system for the first few moments of the system velocity distributions. Predictions for the net ratchet drift, the variance of its velocity fluctuations and the transition rates in the Markovian limit, are compared to numerical simulations and a fair agreement is observed.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures, to be published on Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment

    Electron Dynamics in a Coupled Quantum Point Contact Structure with a Local Magnetic Moment

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    We develop a theoretical model for the description of electron dynamics in coupled quantum wires when the local magnetic moment is formed in one of the wires. We employ a single-particle Hamiltonian that takes account of the specific geometry of potentials defining the structure as well as electron scattering on the local magnetic moment. The equations for the wave functions in both wires are derived and the approach for their solution is discussed. We determine the transmission coefficient and conductance of the wire having the local magnetic moment and show that our description reproduces the experimentally observed features.Comment: Based on work presented at 2004 IEEE NTC Quantum Device Technology Worksho

    Direct simulation for a homogenous gas

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    A probabilistic analysis of the direct simulation of a homogeneous gas is given. A hierarchy of equations similar to the BBGKY hierarchy for the reduced probability densities is derived. By invoking the molecular chaos assumption, an equation similar to the Boltzmann equation for the single particle probability density and the corresponding H-theorem is derived

    Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump in Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/76543/1/AIAA-2007-208-226.pd

    Mechanism of margination in confined flows of blood and other multicomponent suspensions

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    Flowing blood displays a phenomenon called margination, in which leukocytes and platelets are preferentially found near blood vessel walls, while erythrocytes are depleted from these regions. Here margination is investigated using direct hydrodynamic simulations of a binary suspension of stiff (s) and floppy (f) capsules, as well as a stochastic model that incorporates the key particle transport mechanisms in suspensions -- wall-induced hydrodynamic migration and shear-induced pair collisions. The stochastic model allows the relative importance of these two mechanisms to be directly evaluated and thereby indicates that margination, at least in the dilute case, is largely due to the differential dynamics of homogeneous (e.g. s-s) and heterogeneous (s-f) collisionsComment: 5 Pages, 4 figure

    Structural Relaxation and Mode Coupling in a Simple Liquid: Depolarized Light Scattering in Benzene

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    We have measured depolarized light scattering in liquid benzene over the whole accessible temperature range and over four decades in frequency. Between 40 and 180 GHz we find a susceptibility peak due to structural relaxation. This peak shows stretching and time-temperature scaling as known from őĪ\alpha relaxation in glass-forming materials. A simple mode-coupling model provides consistent fits of the entire data set. We conclude that structural relaxation in simple liquids and őĪ\alpha relaxation in glass-forming materials are physically the same. A deeper understanding of simple liquids is reached by applying concepts that were originally developed in the context of glass-transition research.Comment: submitted to New J. Phy

    Multi-particle-collision dynamics: Flow around a circular and a square cylinder

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    A particle-based model for mesoscopic fluid dynamics is used to simulate steady and unsteady flows around a circular and a square cylinder in a two-dimensional channel for a range of Reynolds number between 10 and 130. Numerical results for the recirculation length, the drag coefficient, and the Strouhal number are reported and compared with previous experimental measurements and computational fluid dynamics data. The good agreement demonstrates the potential of this method for the investigation of complex flows.Comment: 6 pages, separated figures in .jpg format, to be published in Europhysics Letter
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