122 research outputs found

    Playing catch-up with Escherichia coli:using yeast to increase success rates in recombinant protein production experiments

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    Several host systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell-lines. This article highlights the benefits of using yeast, especially for more challenging targets such as membrane proteins. On account of the wide range of molecular, genetic, and microbiological tools available, use of the well-studied model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provides many opportunities to optimize the functional yields of a target protein. Despite this wealth of resources, it is surprisingly under-used. In contrast, Pichia pastoris, a relative new-comer as a host organism, is already becoming a popular choice, particularly because of the ease with which high biomass (and hence recombinant protein) yields can be achieved. In the last few years, advances have been made in understanding how a yeast cell responds to the stress of producing a recombinant protein and how this information can be used to identify improved host strains in order to increase functional yields. Given these advantages, and their industrial importance in the production of biopharmaceuticals, I argue that S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris should be considered at an early stage in any serious strategy to produce proteins

    Recombinant protein subunit vaccine synthesis in microbes:a role for yeast?

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    Objectives Recombinant protein subunit vaccines are formulated using protein antigens that have been synthesized in heterologous host cells. Several host cells are available for this purpose, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell lines. This article highlights the benefits of using yeast as the recombinant host. Key findings The yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, have been used to optimize the functional yields of potential antigens for the development of subunit vaccines against a wide range of diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has also been used in the manufacture of 11 approved vaccines against hepatitis B virus and one against human papillomavirus; in both cases, the recombinant protein forms highly immunogenic virus-like particles. Summary Advances in our understanding of how a yeast cell responds to the metabolic load of producing recombinant proteins will allow us to identify host strains that have improved yield properties and enable the synthesis of more challenging antigens that cannot be produced in other systems. Yeasts therefore have the potential to become important host organisms for the production of recombinant antigens that can be used in the manufacture of subunit vaccines or in new vaccine development

    Antifoams:the overlooked additive?

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    Present research has found that antifoams can have a broad range of effects upon bioprocesses, both on the culture environment and upon the cells themselves

    Functional expression of Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 MRP4/ABCC4

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    To study the function and structure of membrane proteins, high quantities of pure and stable protein are needed. One of the first hurdles in accomplishing this is expression of the membrane protein at high levels and in a functional state. Membrane proteins are naturally expressed at low levels, so finding a suitable host for overexpression is imperative. Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) or ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4) is a multi-transmembrane protein that is able to transport a range of organic anionic compounds (both endogenous and xenobiotic) out of the cell. This versatile transporter has been linked with extracellular signaling pathways and cellular protection, along with conferring drug resistance in cancers. Here we report the use of MRP4 as a case study to be expressed in three different expression systems: mammalian, insect, and yeast cells, to gain the highest yield possible. Interestingly, using the baculovirus expression system with Sf9 insect cells produced the highest protein yields. Vesicular transport assays were used to confirm that MRP4 expressed in Sf9 was functional using a fluorescent cAMP analogue (fluo-cAMP) instead of the traditional radiolabeled substrates. MRP4 transported fluo-cAMP in an ATP-dependent manner. The specificity of functional expression of MRP4 was validated by the use of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues and MRP4 inhibitor MK571. Functionally expressed MRP4 in Sf9 cells can now be used in downstream processes such as solubilization and purification in order to better understand its function and structure

    Stabilization of human Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) using novel solubilization agents.

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    Membrane proteins (MPs) are important drug discovery targets for a wide range of diseases. However, elucidating the structure and function of native MP is notoriously challenging as their original structure has to be maintained once removed from the lipid bilayer. Conventionally, detergents have been used to solubilize MP with varying degrees of success concerning MP stability. To try to address this, new, more stabilizing agents have been developed, such as calixarene-based detergents and styrene–maleic acid (SMA) copolymer. Calixarene-based detergents exhibit enhanced solubilizing and stabilizing properties compared with conventional detergents, whereas SMA is able to extract MPs with their surrounding lipids, forming a nanodisc structure. Here we report a comparative study using classical detergents, calixarene-based detergents, and SMA to assess the solubilization and stabilization of the human ABC transporter MRP4 (multidrug resistance protein 4/ABCC4). We show that both SMA and calixarene-based detergents have a higher solubility efficiency (at least 80%) than conventional detergents, and show striking overstabilization features of MRP4 (up to 70 °C) with at least 30 °C stability improvement in comparison with the best conventional detergents. These solubilizing agents were successfully used to purify aggregate-free, homogenous and stable MRP4, with sevenfold higher yield for C4C7 calixarene detergent in comparison with SMA. This work paves the way to MRP4 structural and functional investigations and illustrates once more the high value of using calixarene-based detergent or SMA as versatile and efficient tools to study MP, and eventually enable drug discovery of challenging and highly druggable targets

    Aquaporins in GtoPdb v.2021.3

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    Aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are membrane channels that allow the permeation of water and certain other small solutes across the cell membrane, or in the case of AQP6, AQP11 and AQP12A, intracellular membranes, such as vesicles and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane [16]. Since the isolation and cloning of the first aquaporin (AQP1) [20], 12 additional mammalian members of the family have been identified, although little is known about the functional properties of one of these (AQP12A; Q8IXF9) and it is thus not tabulated. The other 12 aquaporins can be broadly divided into three families: orthodox aquaporins (AQP0,-1,-2,-4,-5, -6 and -8) permeable mainly to water, but for some additional solutes [4]; aquaglyceroporins (AQP3,-7 -9 and -10), additionally permeable to glycerol and for some isoforms urea [14], and superaquaporins (AQP11 and 12) located within cells [12]. Some aquaporins also conduct ammonia and/or H2O2 giving rise to the terms 'ammoniaporins' ('aquaammoniaporins') and 'peroxiporins', respectively. Aquaporins are impermeable to protons and other inorganic and organic cations, with the possible exception of AQP1, although this is controversial [14]. One or more members of this family of proteins have been found to be expressed in almost all tissues of the body [reviewed in Yang (2017) [26]]. AQPs are involved in numerous processes that include systemic water homeostasis, adipocyte metabolism, brain oedema, cell migration and fluid secretion by epithelia. Loss of function mutations of some human AQPs, or their disruption by autoantibodies further underscore their importance [reviewed by Verkman et al. (2014) [23], Kitchen et al. (2105) [14]]. Functional AQPs exist as homotetramers that are the water conducting units wherein individual AQP subunits (each a protomer) have six TM helices and two half helices that constitute a seventh 'pseudotransmembrane domain' that surrounds a narrow water conducting channel [16]. In addition to the four pores contributed by the protomers, an additional hydrophobic pore exists within the center of the complex [16] that may mediate the transport through AQP1. Although numerous small molecule inhibitors of aquaporins, particularly APQ1, have been reported primarily from Xenopus oocyte swelling assays, the activity of most has subsequently been disputed upon retesting using assays of water transport that are less prone to various artifacts [5] and they are therefore excluded from the tables [see Tradtrantip et al. (2017) [22] for a review]

    L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner

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    The dipeptide L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. © 2012 Cartwright et al

    Antifoam addition to shake flask cultures of recombinant Pichia pastoris increases yield

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>Pichia pastoris </it>is a widely-used host for recombinant protein production. Initial screening for both suitable clones and optimum culture conditions is typically carried out in multi-well plates. This is followed by up-scaling either to shake-flasks or continuously stirred tank bioreactors. A particular problem in these formats is foaming, which is commonly prevented by the addition of chemical antifoaming agents. Intriguingly, antifoams are often added without prior consideration of their effect on the yeast cells, the protein product or the influence on downstream processes such as protein purification. In this study we characterised, for the first time, the effects of five commonly-used antifoaming agents on the total amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) secreted from shake-flask cultures of this industrially-relevant yeast.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Addition of defined concentrations of Antifoam A (Sigma), Antifoam C (Sigma), J673A (Struktol), P2000 (Fluka) or SB2121 (Struktol) to shake-flask cultures of <it>P. pastoris </it>increased the total amount of recombinant GFP in the culture medium (the total yield) and in the case of P2000, SB2121 and J673A almost doubled it. When normalized to the culture density, the GFP specific yield (μg OD<sub>595</sub><sup>-1</sup>) was only increased for Antifoam A, Antifoam C and J673A. Whilst none of the antifoams affected the growth rate of the cells, addition of P2000 or SB2121 was found to increase culture density. There was no correlation between total yield, specific yield or specific growth rate and the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (<it>k<sub>L</sub>a</it>) in the presence of antifoam. Moreover, the antifoams did not affect the dissolved oxygen concentration of the cultures. A comparison of the amount of GFP retained in the cell by flow cytometry with that in the culture medium by fluorimetry suggested that addition of Antifoam A, Antifoam C or J673A increased the specific yield of GFP by increasing the proportion secreted into the medium.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We show that addition of a range of antifoaming agents to shake flask cultures of <it>P. pastoris </it>increases the total yield of the recombinant protein being produced. This is not only a simple method to increase the amount of protein in the culture, but our study also provides insight into how antifoams interact with microbial cell factories. Two mechanisms are apparent: one group of antifoams (Antifoam A, Antifoam C and J673A) increases the specific yield of GFP by increasing the total amount of protein produced and secreted per cell, whilst the second (P2000 or SB2121) increases the total yield by increasing the density of the culture.</p

    Production of membrane proteins in yeast

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    Background Yeast is an important and versatile organism for studying membrane proteins. It is easy to cultivate and can perform higher eukaryote-like post-translational modifications. S. cerevisiae has a fully-sequenced genome and there are several collections of deletion strains available, whilst P. pastoris can produce very high cell densities (230 g/l). Results We have used both S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris to over-produce the following His6 and His10 carboxyl terminal fused membrane proteins. CD81 – 26 kDa tetraspanin protein (TAPA-1) that may play an important role in the regulation of lymphoma cell growth and may also act as the viral receptor for Hepatitis C-Virus. CD82 – 30 kDa tetraspanin protein that associates with CD4 or CD8 cells and delivers co-stimulatory signals for the TCR/CD3 pathway. MC4R – 37 kDa seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, present on neurons in the hypothalamus region of the brain and predicted to have a role in the feast or fast signalling pathway. Adt2p – 34 kDa six transmembrane protein that catalyses the exchange of ADP and ATP across the yeast mitochondrial inner membrane. Conclusion We show that yeasts are flexible production organisms for a range of different membrane proteins. The yields are such that future structure-activity relationship studies can be initiated via reconstitution, crystallization for X-ray diffraction or NMR experiments

    A redox-neutral, two-enzyme cascade for the production of malate and gluconate from pyruvate and glucose

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    A triple mutant of NADP(H)-dependent malate dehydrogenase from thermotolerant Thermococcus kodakarensis has an altered cofactor preference for NAD+, as well as improved malate production compared to wildtype malate dehydrogenase. By combining mutant malate dehydrogenase with glucose dehydrogenase from Sulfolobus solfataricus and NAD+/NADH in a closed reaction environment, gluconate and malate could be produced from pyruvate and glucose. After 3 h, the yield of malate was 15.96 mM. These data demonstrate the feasibility of a closed system capable of cofactor regeneration in the production of platform chemicals
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