182 research outputs found

    Gut mesenchymal stromal cells in immunity

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    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), first found in bone marrow (BM), are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal) or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal). In Crohn’s disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFN) is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn’s disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer

    Interleukin-34 Enhances the Tumor Promoting Function of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts

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    In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumor growth and progression through the synthesis of various molecules targeting the neoplastic cells. Here, we demonstrate that IL-34, a cytokine highly expressed in CRC tissue, regulates the function of CAFs in a paracrine and autocrine manner. Specifically, IL-34 induces normal fibroblasts (NFs) to acquire a cellular phenotype resembling that of CAFs, while IL-34 knockdown in CAFs reduces their tumorigenic properties and proliferation. Moreover, IL-34 stimulates NFs to produce netrin-1 and b-FGF—two factors that enhance CRC cell growth and migration. Altogether, our data support the involvement of IL-34 in CRC. Abstract The stromal compartment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is marked by the presence of large numbers of fibroblasts, termed cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which promote CRC growth and progression through the synthesis of various molecules targeting the neoplastic cells. Interleukin (IL)-34, a cytokine over-produced by CRC cells, stimulates CRC cell growth. Since IL-34 also regulates the function of inflammatory fibroblasts, we hypothesized that it could regulate the tumor promoting function of colorectal CAFs. By immunostaining and real-time PCR, we initially showed that IL-34 was highly produced by CAFs and to lesser extent by normal fibroblasts isolated from non-tumoral colonic mucosa of CRC patients. CAFs and normal fibroblasts expressed the functional receptors of IL-34. IL-34 induced normal fibroblasts to express α-SMA, vimentin and fibroblast activation protein and enhanced fibroblast growth, thus generating a cellular phenotype resembling that of CAFs. Consistently, knockdown of IL-34 in CAFs with an antisense oligonucleotide (AS) decreased expression of such markers and inhibited cell proliferation. Co-culture of CRC cells with IL-34 AS-treated CAFs supernatants resulted in less cancer cell proliferation and migration. Among CAF-derived molecules known to promote CRC cell growth/migration, only netrin-1 and basic-fibroblast growth factor were induced by IL-34. Data suggest a role for IL-34 in the control of colorectal CAF function

    Mucinous and Signet-Ring Cell Colonic Adenocarcinoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study

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    Simple Summary Chronic active inflammation is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), while the adenoma-carcinoma sequence appears to be associated with sporadic CRC. In the general population, mucinous and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas are characterized by a worse prognosis. In IBD, a higher frequency of these CRC histotypes has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the frequency and characteristics of mucinous and signet-ring cell adenocarcinomas in patients with IBD versus age-matched non-IBD Controls. CRC was more frequently represented by mucinous/signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma in IBD than in Controls. In rectal CRC, there was a higher proportion of mucinous/signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma vs. standard adenocarcinoma in IBD but not in non-IBD Controls. No risk factors for these two CRC histotypes were identified in IBD. Present findings support that the frequency of mucinous/signet-ring cell colorectal adenocarcinoma is higher in IBD, being associated with rectal involvement of CRC. A higher frequency of mucinous and signet-ring cell colonic adenocarcinoma has been reported in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The primary aim was to investigate the frequency of mucinous and signet-ring cell colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients with IBD (Cases) versus age-matched non-IBD Controls. The secondary aims were to compare the characteristics of these two histotypes of colorectal cancer (CRC) in IBD patients vs. Controls and to search for specific risk factors in IBD. In a case-control study, all IBD patients with CRC diagnosed from 2000 to 2022 were enrolled and matched for age (1:2) with non-IBD Controls with CRC. The study population included 120 CRC patients (40 IBD, 80 Controls). In IBD, CRC included standard adenocarcinoma in 23 (57.5%) patients mucinous/signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma in 17 (42.5%) patients. The proportion of mucinous/signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma was higher in IBD than in Controls (17 [42.5%] vs. 18 [22.5%]; p = 0.03). In rectal CRC, the proportion of mucinous/signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma was higher than standard adenocarcinoma in IBD (8 [47.1%] vs. 4 [17.4%]; p = 0.04) but not in Controls (4 [22.2%] vs. 20 [32.2%]; p = 0.59). In rectal CRC, the proportion of these two histotypes was higher in Cases than in Controls (8/12 [66.6%] vs. 4/24 [16.6%]; p = 0.008), with no risk factors identified in IBD. CRC was more frequently represented by mucinous/signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma in IBD than in age-matched non-IBD Controls. In IBD, these two CRC histotypes were more frequent in the rectum

    Surgery Due to Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy : Mothers and Offspring Outcomes From an Ecco Confer Multicentre Case Series (Scar Study)

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    i) To evaluate the evolution of pregnancies and offspring after inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) surgery during pregnancy; and ii) to describe the indications, the surgical techniques, and the frequency of caesarean section concomitant to surgery.Patients operated on due to IBD during pregnancy after 1998 were included. Participating clinicians were asked to review their databases to identify cases. Data on patients' demographics, IBD characteristics, medical treatments, IBD activity, pregnancy outcomes, surgery, delivery, foetal and maternal outcomes, were recorded.Forty-four IBD patients were included, 75% had Crohn's disease. Eighteen percent of the surgeries were performed in the 1 st trimester, 55% in the 2 nd, and 27% in the 3 rd trimester. One patient had complications during surgery, and 27% had postsurgical complications. No patient died. Seventy percent of deliveries were carried out by caesarean section. There were 40 newborns alive and 4 miscarriages/stillbirths (1 in the 1 st, 2 in the 2 nd, and 1 in the 3 rd trimester): 2 occurred during surgery, and another 2 occurred 2 weeks after surgery. Fourteen percent of the surgeries during the 2 nd trimester and 64% of those in the 3 rd trimester ended up with a simultaneous cesarean section or vaginal delivery. Of the 40 newborns, 61% were premature, and 47% had low birth weight; 42% of newborns needed hospitalisation (25% in the intensive care unit).IBD surgery during pregnancy remains an extremely serious situation. Therefore, surgical management should be performed in a multidisciplinary team, involving gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons, obstetricians and neonatal specialists

    Personalize, participate, predict, and prevent: 4Ps in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a complex, immune-mediated, disorder which leads to several gastrointestinal and systemic manifestations determining a poor quality of life, disability, and other negative health outcomes. Our knowledge of this condition has greatly improved over the last few decades, and a comprehensive management should take into account both biological (i.e., disease-related, patient-related) and non-biological (i.e., socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, behavioral) factors which contribute to the disease phenotype. From this point of view, the so called 4P medicine framework, including personalization, prediction, prevention, and participation could be useful for tailoring ad hoc interventions in IBD patients. In this review, we discuss the cutting-edge issues regarding personalization in special settings (i.e., pregnancy, oncology, infectious diseases), patient participation (i.e., how to communicate, disability, tackling stigma and resilience, quality of care), disease prediction (i.e., faecal markers, response to treatments), and prevention (i.e., dysplasia through endoscopy, infections through vaccinations, and post-surgical recurrence). Finally, we provide an outlook discussing the unmet needs for implementing this conceptual framework in clinical practice
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