79 research outputs found

    Fine-needle aspiration accuracy in the diagnosis of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature

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    Primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland is extremely rare. Only 37 cases have been reported in the scientific literature.Here we describe the case of a 55-year-old woman affected by metastatic angiosarcoma in the right adrenal gland, who died few days after the histological diagnosis made by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). This is the second case of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma diagnosed by FNA among scientific articles published in English in PubMed. Microscopically, the tumor showed a predominant epithelioid differentiation, thus making the diagnostic process more difficult than usual. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive reactivity for cytokeratin, CD31, and CD34. The literature shows that epithelioid adrenal angiosarcoma has poor clinical outcome, especially when metastatic at presentation

    Early immune modulation by single-agent trastuzumab as a marker of trastuzumab benefit

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    BACKGROUND: Optimising the selection of HER2-targeted regimens by identifying subsets of HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) patients who need more or less therapy remains challenging. We analysed BC samples before and after treatment with 1 cycle of trastuzumab according to the response to trastuzumab. METHODS: Gene expression profiles of pre- and post-treatment tumour samples from 17 HER2-positive BC patients were analysed on the Illumina platform. Tumour-associated immune pathways and blood counts were analysed with regard to the response to trastuzumab. HER2-positive murine models with differential responses to trastuzumab were used to reproduce and better characterise these data. RESULTS: Patients who responded to single-agent trastuzumab had basal tumour biopsies that were enriched in immune pathways, particularly the MHC-II metagene. One cycle of trastuzumab modulated the expression levels of MHC-II genes, which increased in patients who had a complete response on treatment with trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Trastuzumab increased the MHC-II-positive cell population, primarily macrophages, only in the tumour microenvironment of responsive mice. In patients who benefited from complete trastuzumab therapy and in mice that harboured responsive tumours circulating neutrophil levels declined, but this cell subset rose in nonresponsive tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Short treatment with trastuzumab induces local and systemic immunomodulation that is associated with clinical outcomes

    The Role of Carbon Dioxide Laser Therapy in Penile Kaposi’s Sarcoma: A Case Series of Three HIV-Negative HHV-8-Positive Patients

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    Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a rare tumor of vascular origin. It is quite common in HIV patients. It is rarely located on the glans penis, especially in HIV-negative patients (just some tens in the literature). Owing to the rarity of the disease, both the real impact on survival and the most suitable therapy are not known. However, in this 3-patient case series, carbon dioxide laser therapy was effective both for local control and survival. In fact, two late relapses but no disease-related death were recorded. Probably, KS in HIV-negative patients is a slowly progressive disease, not so aggressive as in HIV-positive patients. Laser therapy is easy, fast, and cheap, and may treat the disease radically. If these data are confirmed by further studies, in the foreseeable future, laser therapy may become the gold standard for treating HIV-negative patients affected by penile KS

    Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of thyroid cancers identify DICER1 somatic mutations in adult follicular-patterned RAS-like tumors

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    BackgroundPapillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer (TC). Several genomic and transcriptomic studies explored the molecular landscape of follicular cell-derived TCs, and BRAFV600E, RAS mutations, and gene fusions are well-established drivers. DICER1 mutations were described in specific sets of TC patients but represent a rare event in adult TC patients.MethodsHere, we report the molecular characterization of 30 retrospective follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors, comprising PTCs (90%) and poorly differentiated TCs (10%), collected at our Institute. We performed DNA whole-exome sequencing using patient-matched control for somatic mutation calling, and targeted RNA-seq for gene fusion detection. Transcriptional profiles established in the same cohort by microarray were investigated using three signaling-related gene signatures derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).ResultsThe occurrence of BRAFV600E (44%), RAS mutations (13%), and gene fusions (13%) was confirmed in our cohort. In addition, in two patients lacking known drivers, mutations of the DICER1 gene (p.D1709N and p.D1810V) were identified. DICER1 mutations occur in two adult patients with follicular-pattern lesions, and in one of them a second concurrent DICER1 mutation (p.R459*) is also observed. Additional putative drivers include ROS1 gene (p.P2130A mutation), identified in a patient with a rare solid-trabecular subtype of PTC. Transcriptomics indicates that DICER1 tumors are RAS-like, whereas the ROS1-mutated tumor displays a borderline RAS-/BRAF-like subtype. We also provide an overview of DICER1 and ROS1 mutations in thyroid lesions by investigating the COSMIC database.ConclusionEven though small, our series recapitulates the genetic background of PTC. Furthermore, we identified DICER1 mutations, one of which is previously unreported in thyroid lesions. For these less common alterations and for patients with unknown drivers, we provide signaling information applying TCGA-derived classification

    Whole-transcriptome analysis links trastuzumab sensitivity of breast tumors to both HER2 dependence and immune cell infiltration.

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    While results thus far demonstrate the clinical benefit of trastuzumab, some patients do not respond to this therapy. To identify a molecular predictor of trastuzumab benefit, we conducted whole-transcriptome analysis of primary HER2+ breast carcinomas obtained from patients treated with trastuzumab-containing therapies and correlated the molecular portrait with treatment benefit. The estimated association between gene expression and relapse-free survival allowed development of a trastuzumab risk model (TRAR), with ERBB2 and ESR1 expression as core elements, able to identify patients with high and low risk of relapse. Application of the TRAR model to 24 HER2+ core biopsies from patients treated with neo-adjuvant trastuzumab indicated that it is predictive of trastuzumab response. Examination of TRAR in available whole-transcriptome datasets indicated that this model stratifies patients according to response to trastuzumab-based neo-adjuvant treatment but not to chemotherapy alone. Pathway analysis revealed that TRAR-low tumors expressed genes of the immune response, with higher numbers of CD8-positive cells detected immunohistochemically compared to TRAR-high tumors. The TRAR model identifies tumors that benefit from trastuzumab-based treatment as those most enriched in CD8-positive immune infiltrating cells and with high ERBB2 and low ESR1 mRNA levels, indicating the requirement for both features in achieving trastuzumab response

    A Prognostic Model for Estimating the Time to Virologic Failure in HIV-1 Infected Patients Undergoing a New Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>HIV-1 genotypic susceptibility scores (GSSs) were proven to be significant prognostic factors of fixed time-point virologic outcomes after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) switch/initiation. However, their relative-hazard for the time to virologic failure has not been thoroughly investigated, and an expert system that is able to predict how long a new cART regimen will remain effective has never been designed.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We analyzed patients of the Italian ARCA cohort starting a new cART from 1999 onwards either after virologic failure or as treatment-naïve. The time to virologic failure was the endpoint, from the 90<sup>th </sup>day after treatment start, defined as the first HIV-1 RNA > 400 copies/ml, censoring at last available HIV-1 RNA before treatment discontinuation. We assessed the relative hazard/importance of GSSs according to distinct interpretation systems (Rega, ANRS and HIVdb) and other covariates by means of Cox regression and random survival forests (RSF). Prediction models were validated via the bootstrap and c-index measure.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The dataset included 2337 regimens from 2182 patients, of which 733 were previously treatment-naïve. We observed 1067 virologic failures over 2820 persons-years. Multivariable analysis revealed that low GSSs of cART were independently associated with the hazard of a virologic failure, along with several other covariates. Evaluation of predictive performance yielded a modest ability of the Cox regression to predict the virologic endpoint (c-index≈0.70), while RSF showed a better performance (c-index≈0.73, p < 0.0001 vs. Cox regression). Variable importance according to RSF was concordant with the Cox hazards.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>GSSs of cART and several other covariates were investigated using linear and non-linear survival analysis. RSF models are a promising approach for the development of a reliable system that predicts time to virologic failure better than Cox regression. Such models might represent a significant improvement over the current methods for monitoring and optimization of cART.</p

    Stromal Activation by Tumor Cells: An in Vitro Study in Breast Cancer

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    Background: The tumor microenvironment participates in the regulation of tumor progression and influences treatment sensitivity. In breast cancer, it also may play a role in determining the fate of non-invasive lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive diseases, which is aggressively treated despite its indolent nature in many patients since no biomarkers are available to predict the progression of DCIS to invasive disease. In vitro models of stromal activation by breast tumor cells might provide clues as to specific stromal genes crucial for the transition from DCIS to invasive disease. Methods: normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were treated under serum-free conditions with cell culture media conditioned by breast cancer cell lines (SkBr3, MDA-MB-468, T47D) for 72 h and subjected to gene expression profiling with Illumina platform. Results: TGM2, coding for a tissue transglutaminase, was identified as candidate gene for stromal activation. In public transcriptomic datasets of invasive breast tumors TGM2 expression proved to provide prognostic information. Conversely, its role as an early biosensor of tumor invasiveness needs to be further investigated by in situ analyses. Conclusion: Stromal TGM2 might probably be associated with precancerous evolution at earlier stages compared to DCIS

    Decoding Immune Heterogeneity of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Its Association with Systemic Inflammation

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    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype with limited therapeutic options. New opportunities are emerging from current comprehensive characterization of tumor immune infiltration and fitness. Therefore, effectiveness of current chemotherapies and novel immunotherapies are partially dictated by host inflammatory and immune profiles. However, further progress in breast cancer immuno-oncology is required to reach a detailed awareness of the immune infiltrate landscape and to determine additional reliable and easily detectable biomarkers. In this study, by analyzing gene expression profiles of 54 TNBC cases we identified three TNBC clusters displaying unique immune features. Deep molecular characterization of immune cells cytolytic-activity and tumor-inflammation status reveled variability in the local composition of the immune infiltrate in the TNBC clusters, reconciled by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes counts. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), a blood systemic parameter of inflammation evaluated using pre-surgical blood test data, resulted negatively correlated with local tumoral cytolytic activity and T cell&ndash;inflamed microenvironment, whereas tumor aggressiveness score signature positively correlated with PLR values. These data highlighted that systemic inflammation parameters may represent reliable and informative markers of the local immune tumor microenvironment in TNBC patients and could be exploited to decipher tumor infiltrate properties and consequently to select the most appropriate therapies

    Fine-needle aspiration accuracy in the diagnosis of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    No full text
    Primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland is extremely rare. Only 37 cases have been reported in the scientific literature. Here we describe the case of a 55-year-old woman affected by metastatic angiosarcoma in the right adrenal gland, who died few days after the histological diagnosis made by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). This is the second case of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma diagnosed by FNA among scientific articles published in English in PubMed. Microscopically, the tumor showed a predominant epithelioid differentiation, thus making the diagnostic process more difficult than usual. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive reactivity for cytokeratin, CD31, and CD34. The literature shows that epithelioid adrenal angiosarcoma has poor clinical outcome, especially when metastatic at presentation
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