3,028 research outputs found

    Comparison of Leaf Reflectance of Sorghum Plants Infested by Sugarcane Aphids

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    Sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Homiptera: Aphididae; Fig. 1A), is a significant pest to sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (Fig. 1B). Sorghum fields are regularly surveyed to detect pest infestation. Remote sensing methods using satellite and aircraft data are expected to provide an efficient alternative to field surveys. However, spectral signature of sugarcane aphid infested sorghum plants is not well understood. We evaluated reflectance spectra of sorghum leaves infested by sugarcane aphids. We used those spectral data to estimate indices that are related to photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll', anthocyanin, and carotenoids. We also estimated an aphid index, damage sensitive spectral index (DSSI)". We used these data to examine whether indices differ between pest infested and uninfested plants. We predicted that plants infested by aphid will have higher levels of anthocyanin, carotenoids, and DSSI indices compared to the control plants. In contrary, chlorophyll index will be greater for uninfested plants

    USE OF POULTRY LITTER AND OTHER BIOMASS IN ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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    Poultry litter is a byproduct of poultry production which has potential to cause water quality problem if it is not applied properly on land as a nutrient source. Using survey information available from Louisiana broiler producers, we found that broiler litter is not cost‚Äźeffective to transport farther than 24 miles from the production facilities given the crops grown in the region and other prevailing cost parameters. Alternative to broiler litter use on land as crop nutrients is its use as electricity production through combustion. We found that biomass‚Äźelectricity conversion is cost prohibitive if three small plant operations are established. It can be profitable if one large size plant of 10.5 MW is constructed, litter is available free, transportation cost is low and construction cost of electricity plant falls at the lower range. Regional and state level economic impacts (multiplier) of using broiler litter for electricity was found to be in the range of 1.4‚Äź1.5 and 1.42‚Äź1.55, respectively for the capital expenditure and 1.21‚Äź2.67 and 1.27‚Äź1.94 respectively for the operation cost. Detail environmental impact assessment may be needed to assess the full benefits of poultry litter‚Äźelectricity production.broiler, breakeven transportation distance, poultry‚Äźelectricity production feasibility, impact factor, Production Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, O13, Q42, Q53,

    AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST LANDUSE CHANGES, AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE FOR DEFORESTATION: AN INTERTEMPORAL DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

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    This study is an investigation of the process of land conversion from forest to agricultural production, and assessing the factors affecting the process. We also analyze the conditions that would ultimately lead to the EKC type of relationship between deforestation and societal income in an economy.Land Economics/Use,

    Appreciating Deep Interlinkages: A Review of Svend Brinkmann’s Philosophies of Qualitative Research

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    In his book, Philosophies of Qualitative Research, Svend Brinkmann argues why qualitative researchers need to be mindful of the philosophies that undergird various qualitative research approaches

    Searching for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Carbon Dioxide Pollutant in Latin American Countries

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    This study utilized a semiparametric panel model to estimate environmental Kuznets curves (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in 15 Latin American countries, using hitherto unused data on forestry acreage in each country. Results showed an N-shaped curve for the region; however, the shape of the curve is sensitive to the removal of some groups of countries. Specification tests support a semiparametric panel model over a parametric quadratic specification.CO2, forest acreage, environmental Kuznets curve, Latin American countries, semiparametric regression model, Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, C14, C33, Q23, Q53,

    Advance care planning in 21st century Australia: a systematic review and appraisal of online advance care directive templates against national framework criteria

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    Objectives A drive to promote advance care planning at a population level has led to a proliferation of online advance care directive (ACD) templates but little information to guide consumer choice. The current study aimed to appraise the quality of online ACD templates promoted for use in Australia. Methods A systematic review of online Australian ACD templates was conducted in February 2014. ACD templates were identified via Google searches, and quality was independently appraised by two reviewers against criteria from the 2011 report A National Framework for Advance Care Directives. Bias either towards or against future medical treatment was assessed using criteria designed to limit subjectivity. Results Fourteen online ACD templates were included, all of which were available only in English. Templates developed by Southern Cross University best met the framework criteria. One ACD template was found to be biased against medical treatment ‚Äď the Dying with Dignity Victoria Advance Healthcare Directive. Conclusions More research is needed to understand how online resources can optimally elicit and record consumers‚Äô individual preferences for future care. Future iterations of the framework should address online availability and provide a simple rating system to inform choice and drive quality improvement

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions in Latin America: Looking for the Existence of Environmental Kuznets Curves

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    We estimated environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide for 16 Latin American countries using nonparametric, semi-parametric, and parametric specifications. Results indicated that most of the Latin American countries are still in the rising portion of the EKC with respect to CO2 pollution.Environmental Economics and Policy,
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