1,353 research outputs found

    A New Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm Based on Newton¿s Gravitational Force

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    [EN] The kNN algorithm has three main advantages that make it appealing to the community: it is easy to understand, it regularly offers competitive performance and its structure can be easily tuning to adapting to the needs of researchers to achieve better results. One of the variations is weighting the instances based on their distance. In this paper we propose a weighting based on the Newton's gravitational force, so that a mass (or relevance) has to be assigned to each instance. We evaluated this idea in the kNN context over 13 benchmark data sets used for binary and multi-class classification experiments. Results in F1 score, statistically validated, suggest that our proposal outperforms the original version of kNN and is statistically competitive with the distance weighted kNN version as well.This research was partially supported by CONACYT-Mexico (project FC-2410). The work of Paolo Rosso has been partially funded by the SomEMBED TIN2015-71147-C2-1-P MINECO research project.Aguilera, J.; González, LC.; Montes-Y-Gómez, M.; Rosso, P. (2019). A New Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm Based on Newton¿s Gravitational Force. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 11401:305-313. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13469-3_36S3053131140

    On instantons as Kaluza-Klein modes of M5-branes

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    Instantons and W-bosons in 5d maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory arise from a circle compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory as Kaluza-Klein modes and winding self-dual strings, respectively. We study an index which counts BPS instantons with electric charges in Coulomb and symmetric phases. We first prove the existence of unique threshold bound state of (noncommutative) U(1) instantons for any instanton number, and also show that charged instantons in the Coulomb phase correctly give the degeneracy of SU(2) self-dual strings. By studying SU(N) self-dual strings in the Coulomb phase, we find novel momentum-carrying degrees on the worldsheet. The total number of these degrees equals the anomaly coefficient of SU(N) (2,0) theory. We finally show that our index can be used to study the symmetric phase of this theory, and provide an interpretation as the superconformal index of the sigma model on instanton moduli space.Comment: 54 pages, 2 figures. v2: references added, figure improved, added comments on self-dual string anomaly, added new materials on the symmetric phase index, other minor correction

    Modelling avalanches in martensites

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    Solids subject to continuous changes of temperature or mechanical load often exhibit discontinuous avalanche-like responses. For instance, avalanche dynamics have been observed during plastic deformation, fracture, domain switching in ferroic materials or martensitic transformations. The statistical analysis of avalanches reveals a very complex scenario with a distinctive lack of characteristic scales. Much effort has been devoted in the last decades to understand the origin and ubiquity of scale-free behaviour in solids and many other systems. This chapter reviews some efforts to understand the characteristics of avalanches in martensites through mathematical modelling.Comment: Chapter in the book "Avalanches in Functional Materials and Geophysics", edited by E. K. H. Salje, A. Saxena, and A. Planes. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45612-6_

    Of cattle, sand flies and men : a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination

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    Background: Studies performed over the past decade have identified fairly consistent epidemiological patterns of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Methods and Principal Findings: To inform the current regional VL elimination effort and identify key gaps in knowledge, we performed a systematic review of the literature, with a special emphasis on data regarding the role of cattle because primary risk factor studies have yielded apparently contradictory results. Because humans form the sole infection reservoir, clustering of kala-azar cases is a prominent epidemiological feature, both at the household level and on a larger scale. Subclinical infection also tends to show clustering around kala-azar cases. Within villages, areas become saturated over a period of several years; kala-azar incidence then decreases while neighboring areas see increases. More recently, post kalaazar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases have followed kala-azar peaks. Mud walls, palpable dampness in houses, and peridomestic vegetation may increase infection risk through enhanced density and prolonged survival of the sand fly vector. Bed net use, sleeping on a cot and indoor residual spraying are generally associated with decreased risk. Poor micronutrient status increases the risk of progression to kala-azar. The presence of cattle is associated with increased risk in some studies and decreased risk in others, reflecting the complexity of the effect of bovines on sand fly abundance, aggregation, feeding behavior and leishmanial infection rates. Poverty is an overarching theme, interacting with individual risk factors on multiple levels. Conclusions: Carefully designed demonstration projects, taking into account the complex web of interconnected risk factors, are needed to provide direct proof of principle for elimination and to identify the most effective maintenance activities to prevent a rapid resurgence when interventions are scaled back. More effective, short-course treatment regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to enable the elimination initiative to succeed

    Identifying Ligand Binding Conformations of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor by Using Its Agonists as Computational Probes

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    Recently available G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) structures and biophysical studies suggest that the difference between the effects of various agonists and antagonists cannot be explained by single structures alone, but rather that the conformational ensembles of the proteins need to be considered. Here we use an elastic network model-guided molecular dynamics simulation protocol to generate an ensemble of conformers of a prototypical GPCR, β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). The resulting conformers are clustered into groups based on the conformations of the ligand binding site, and distinct conformers from each group are assessed for their binding to known agonists of β2AR. We show that the select ligands bind preferentially to different predicted conformers of β2AR, and identify a role of β2AR extracellular region as an allosteric binding site for larger drugs such as salmeterol. Thus, drugs and ligands can be used as "computational probes" to systematically identify protein conformers with likely biological significance. © 2012 Isin et al

    Evolution of small putative group I introns in the SSU rRNA gene locus of Phialophora species

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Group I introns (specifically subgroup IC1) are common in the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of fungi. While most range in length from more than 200 to nearly 1800 nucleotides (nt) in length, several small putative (or degenerate) group I introns have been described that are between 56 and 81 nt. Although small, previously we demonstrated that the <it>Pa</it>SSU intron in the rRNA small subunit gene of <it>Phialophora americana </it>isolate Wang 1046 is capable of <it>in vitro </it>splicing using a standard group I intron pathway, thus qualifying it as a functional ribozyme.</p> <p>Findings</p> <p>Here, we describe eight short putative group I introns, ranging in length from 63 to 75 nt, in the rRNA small subunit genes of <it>Phialophora </it>isolates, a fungal genus that ranges from saprobic to pathogenic on plants and animals. All contain putative pairing regions P1, P7, and P10, as well as a pairing region formed between the middle of the intron and part of the 3' exon. The other pairing regions common in the core of standard group I introns are absent. However, parts of the 3' exon may aid in the stabilization of these small introns. Although the eight putative group I introns were from at least three species of <it>Phialophora</it>, phylogenetic analysis indicated that the eight are monophyletic. They are also monophyletic with the small introns of two lichen-forming fungi, <it>Porpidia crustulata </it>and <it>Arthonia lapidicola</it>.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The small putative group I introns in <it>Phialophora </it>have common features that may represent group I introns at their minima. They appear to have a single origin as indicated by their monophyly in phylogenetic analyses.</p

    MicroRNAs targeting oncogenes are down-regulated in pancreatic malignant transformation from benign tumors

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    BACKGROUND MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been described in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but these have not been compared with pre-malignant pancreatic tumors. We wished to compare the miRNA expression signatures in pancreatic benign cystic tumors (BCT) of low and high malignant potential with PDAC, in order to identify miRNAs deregulated during PDAC development. The mechanistic consequences of miRNA dysregulation were further evaluated. METHODS Tissue samples were obtained at a tertiary pancreatic unit from individuals with BCT and PDAC. MiRNA profiling was performed using a custom microarray and results were validated using RT-qPCR prior to evaluation of miRNA targets. RESULTS Widespread miRNA down-regulation was observed in PDAC compared to low malignant potential BCT. We show that amongst those miRNAs down-regulated, miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d regulate known PDAC oncogenes (targeting BCL2, CRK and KRAS respectively). Notably, miR-126 also directly targets the KRAS transcript at a "seedless" binding site within its 3'UTR. In clinical specimens, miR-126 was strongly down-regulated in PDAC tissues, with an associated elevation in KRAS and CRK proteins. Furthermore, miR-21, a known oncogenic miRNA in pancreatic and other cancers, was not elevated in PDAC compared to serous microcystic adenoma (SMCA), but in both groups it was up-regulated compared to normal pancreas, implicating early up-regulation during malignant change. CONCLUSIONS Expression profiling revealed 21 miRNAs down-regulated in PDAC compared to SMCA, the most benign lesion that rarely progresses to invasive carcinoma. It appears that miR-21 up-regulation is an early event in the transformation from normal pancreatic tissue. MiRNA expression has the potential to distinguish PDAC from normal pancreas and BCT. Mechanistically the down-regulation of miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d promotes PDAC transformation by post-transcriptional up-regulation of crucial PDAC oncogenes. We show that miR-126 is able to directly target KRAS; re-expression has the potential as a therapeutic strategy against PDAC and other KRAS-driven cancers

    Visceral Leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur District, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008

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    BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Phlebotomus argentipes. To understand the VL seasonality, annual and monthly variations of VL incidence and its relationship to meteorological variables, the numbers of VL cases reported in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India from 1990 to 2008 were studied. METHODS: Annual VL incidence per 10,000 and the total number of annual VL cases reported at block Community Health Centres (CHC), Public Hospitals or Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) and the number of VL cases per month from 2000 to 2008 as well as the monthly average of cases for 2000-08, 2000-04 and 2005-08 periods along with the monthly averages of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were plotted. VL Standardised Incidence Ratios per block were computed for the periods of 1990-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2004 and 2005-2008 and month wise from 2002 to 2008. A negative binomial regression model was used to evaluate the association between meteorological variables and the number of VL cases per month from 2000 to 2008. RESULTS: A total of 68,358 VL cases were reported in Muzaffarpur district from 1990 to 2008, ranging from 1,2481 in 1992 to 1,161 in 2001. The blocks with the highest number of cases shifted from East (1990-98) to West (1999-2008). Monthly averages of cases ranged from 149 to 309, highest peak in March-April and another one in July. Monthly VL incidence was associated positively to rainfall and negatively to relative humidity and the numbers of VL cases in the previous month. INTERPRETATION: The number of cases reported to the public health sector allowed the describing of the spatial distribution and temporal variations in the Muzaffarpur from 1990 to 2008. However, to assess the actual VL burden, as well as the efficacy of the control measures applied in the district, reporting from private practices and NGOs should be encouraged

    Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. <it>Cytisus scoparius </it>(CS) Link, (Family: Leguminosae), also called <it>Sarothamnus scoparius</it>, has been shown in <it>invitro </it>experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o) and diazepam (DZM) (2 mg/kg, p.o) was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT); non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>CS possesses anti-stress and moderate anxiolytic activity which may be due, in part, to its antioxidant effect that might warrant further studies.</p
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