44 research outputs found

    Bounding Uncertainty:The Uses of Analogical Abduction in Entrepreneurship

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    Conceptualizing entrepreneurship as problem-solving has shed light on how problems are solved through entrepreneurial ventures. This approach presupposes that problems objectively exist, an assumption that is valid for the world of Knightian risk, in which categorization is possible. In the current study, we adopt the ontological stance of Knightian uncertainty, in which a priori categories cannot be assumed, and therefore problems do not objectively exist. We posit that in the world of Knightian uncertainty entrepreneurs who perceive certain situations as unsatisfactory but remediable engage in problematization which yields problem statements. These problem statements are operationalized to form the basis of entrepreneurial action aimed at remedying dissatisfaction. We submit that to problematize, entrepreneurs engage in analogical abduction, which allows them to develop problem statements by treating target domains replete with Knightian uncertainty as if they were similar to familiar source domains. Such conjectures are selected based on the likeness of relevant attributes between the source and target domains, aid entrepreneurs in bounding uncertainty, and guide entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurs adopt positive feedback of entrepreneurial action as a rule to guide future action under similar circumstances, while negative feedback leads them to recalibrate problem statements and modify further action. We illustrate this process using the empirical vignette of Starbucks

    The COWIN portal – current update, personal experience and future possibilities

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    India began one of the biggest COVID-19 vaccination drives on 16 January 2021, marking the beginning of the mammoth effort to vaccinate more than 1.3 billion people. The vaccination programme to protect people has started globally to combat the pandemic, which has killed more than 3.1 million people globally and infected 149 million people as of 29 April (1). India started its vaccine drive with two vaccines- Covishield by the Serum Institute of India and Covaxin by Bharat Biotech. Around 12,000 private hospitals, empanelled under PM-JAY (National Health Insurance), and hospitals under the CGHS (Central Government Health Scheme) are the vaccination sites. The monitoring of inoculation drive and to track the listed beneficiaries on a real-time basis, Co-WIN application has been developed for planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the whole drive in India. This software was developed by Union Health Ministry, and their experience with electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN) software has ensured the versatility and utility of this dedicated Co-WIN software(2

    Problem formulation for theorizing at the frontier:An Oliver Williamson inspired approach

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    Ostensibly, the evolving science of strategic management is geared towards addressing vexing managerial problems. In practice, however, scholars in the field have a marked tendency to formulate problems to fit existing theoretical and methodological frameworks, even at the expense of committing type III errors. While the tendency to do so is often attributed to institutional pressures and the like, we submit that an equally or more compelling reason is the absence of guidance on how to engage in problem-driven inquiry and formulate problems to explore theoretical frontiers. In the strategic management field’s problem-solving spirit, we provide an approach for problem formulation and theorizing inspired by Oliver Williamson and two of his accomplished advisees. We abduce five principles and six dialectic conversations. We synthesize these principles and dialectics into five protocols to enable canonical problem formulation directed at exploring theoretical frontiers, that is, a “white space.” Using a recently rejected manuscript, we show how our Williamson inspired approach can be useful in formulating problems that are both managerially relevant and theoretically fruitful

    Emerging and re-emerging viral infections in India

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    The number of outbreaks have  progressively increased since many years in India. In this era of globalization and rapid international travel, any infectious disease in one country can become a potential threat to the entire globe. Outbreaks of Nipah, Zika, Crimean- Congo Haemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease and have been reported since a decade and now we are facing COVID 19 pandemic. One of the challenges in the prevention of these outbreaks is that as the cases decrease, the felt need declines, the public demand decreases and the mitigation responses get overshadowed by the need of emergency responses elsewhere. The One Health approach is a movement to promote alliance between medicine field, veterinary medicine and environmental sciences to upgrade the health of humans, animals, and ecosystem. The data in this article is compiled from different websites and publications of World Health Organization (WHO), Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), grey literature and media. There is an urgent need for better surveillance and disease burden assessments in the country and to gain detailed insights into vector biology, factors of environment influencing the diseases, mapping of endemic areas, strengthen intersectoral coordination, infection control practices, and ensure use of Personal Protective Equipment’s (PPE) and availability of drugs and vaccines to handle the outbreaks in a better way

    Death, Disability, and Premature Life Years Lost Due to Cigarettes, Bidis, and Smokeless Tobacco in India: A Comparative Assessment

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    Background: Due to the staggering number of tobacco users in India, it is important to determine the exact mortality and morbidity rates due to tobacco use. This study aimed to estimate deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and years of life lost (YLLs) attributable to cigarettes, bidis, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) in India. Methods: Data pooling and meta-analysis were done using case-control studies available on the three types of tobacco products. Health burden was estimated by applying the population attributable fraction (PAF) value to the total disease burden. Findings: A total of 33 studies were included. PAF was calculated for oral and lung cancer as well as ischemic heart disease (IHD) due to cigarettes, oral and lung cancer, IHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to bidi, and oral and stomach cancer and IHD due to SLT. Cigarettes resulted in 8.4 million DALYs, 8.26 million YLLs, and 341 deaths; bidis led to 11.7 million DALYs, 10.7 million YLLs, and 478 thousand deaths, and SLTs accounted for 4.38 million DALYs, 4.3 million YLLs, and 171 thousand deaths annually. Conclusion: Evidence of measurable health burden and methodology for calculation for individual states was provided in the study. The generated evidence could be utilized for policy recommendations and revision of the existing taxation norms

    Bounded rationality, complexity, and operational failure: Lessons from the Lac-MĂ©gantic disaster

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    Despite the best effort of industries and regulatory bodies employing and overseeing complex technical systems to mitigate failures, they are not always successful. In the current study, I examine the fatal accident at Lac-MĂ©gantic in 2013, where a freight train carrying millions of liters of crude oil derailed resulting in the death of 47 people. Five years later, authorities have been unable to identify a root cause. To enhance our understanding of unexpected failures of complex systems and artifacts, I attempt to uncover the mechanisms underlying the accident. I first adopt the ‘defense in depth’ approach commonly employed in the industry and highlight its shortcomings. I develop an explanation centered on unrealized system drift, brought on by incremental deviations, normalized by boundedly rational agents adapting to local conditions. I propose the invisible hand of complexity steers the artifact undetected towards failure, and our limited understanding of complex systems impedes us from comprehending the implications of drift. I submit the regulatory response is unlikely to prevent similar accidents because our current ontological and epistemological framework to manage complex artifacts and investigate their failures is flawed. I develop theoretical and practical implications of my findings, and conclude with prescriptions to mitigate accidents

    Values-based trust as a shift parameter for collective organizing: The case of magnum photos

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    For economic agents seeking to organize collectively, opportunism is a central concern – any invasion by opportunistic agents can threaten an organization’s viability. To understand how economic agents address this concern, we examine Magnum Photos, an enduring elite cooperative of freelance photographers that screened prospective members based on shared values. We identify two mechanisms through which these shared values engendered non-calculative trust that renders collective organizing economically viable. We unpack how this values-based trust attenuates hazards of opportunism and promotes risk bearing and innovation when property rights are appropriately assigned to individual members and the size of the collective organization remains relatively small. We maintain that Magnum can be regarded as a form of collective entrepreneurship adopted by risk bearing agents bound together by shared values. We provide unique insight into how economic agents in industries beset by measurement problems can organize collectively around shared values to mitigate opportunism and innovate

    Values-based trust as a shift parameter for collective organizing: The case of magnum photos

    No full text
    For economic agents seeking to organize collectively, opportunism is a central concern – any invasion by opportunistic agents can threaten an organization’s viability. To understand how economic agents address this concern, we examine Magnum Photos, an enduring elite cooperative of freelance photographers that screened prospective members based on shared values. We identify two mechanisms through which these shared values engendered non-calculative trust that renders collective organizing economically viable. We unpack how this values-based trust attenuates hazards of opportunism and promotes risk bearing and innovation when property rights are appropriately assigned to individual members and the size of the collective organization remains relatively small. We maintain that Magnum can be regarded as a form of collective entrepreneurship adopted by risk bearing agents bound together by shared values. We provide unique insight into how economic agents in industries beset by measurement problems can organize collectively around shared values to mitigate opportunism and innovate

    Is there safety in numbers? Organizing as a cooperative in the freelance economy

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    Freelance work is becoming increasingly ubiquitous and pervasive across multiple sectors of the economy. Freelancers are especially vulnerable to hazards of opportunism, and lack the protections traditional workers typically enjoy. In the current study, we enquire whether organizing as a cooperative can aid freelancers in overcoming the challenges they face. To address this question, we conduct a single in-depth case study. We selected Magnum Photos, an exclusive freelancer cooperative agency, founded in 1947 to further the interests of its members. We find that the agency adopted a novel organizational cooperative form we entitle entrepreneurial club, in which the members, who are carefully screened and selected, retain individual property and decision rights. This novel form served to mitigate agency problems, facilitate innovation, reduce transaction costs of exchange, and ultimately contributed to changing the established rules of the game in the field of photojournalism. Currently, Magnum is considered to be a flagship organization in the profession, although the exponential increase in size has led to recent organizational changes. Predicated on our analysis, we suggest that organizing as a cooperative along the above espoused parameters is more beneficial for freelancers than following an atomized approach
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