135 research outputs found

    Effects of different fertilizers on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in summer season in Chitwan, Nepal

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    An experiment was conducted in the Horticulture Farm of Agriculture and Forestry University to demonstrate the effects of different fertilizers on the yield and yield parameters of okra (var. Arka Anamika). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) consisting of seven treatments and three replications. The various treatments used in the experiment were goat manure, sesame cake, mustard cake, synthetic fertilizer (NPK), poultry manure, vermicompost and untreated control. The required dose of nitrogen was fulfilled by the fertilizer itself whereas insufficient amount of phosphorous and potassium was fulfilled by addition of single super phosphate and muriate of potash respectively. The fertilizers were applied on the basis of recommendation given by the Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC). The effect of poultry manure on number of open flowers and number of fruits at 40 DAS was found superior. The effect of poultry manure on plant height, number of leaves, plant diameter was found superior at 50 DAS. Goat manure produced the superior result on number of open flowers at 50 DAS. Poultry manure on the number of leaves and plant height produced the significant result at 60 DAS. Synthetic fertilizer responded well to number of fruits at 60 DAS. Sesame cake produced the superior results at 70 DAS on number of buds. Poultry manure responded well to all the parameters and produced the yield of 200 qt./ha with the BC ratio of 1.77. This experiment suggests the farmers to use the poultry manure to get the highest economic return. Vermicompost and mustard cake producing the superior and significant yield in this research are not recommended as they have low BC ratio unless effective measures are encouraged to reduce the cost of this fertilizers

    Design of Automated Rainout Shelter to Conduct Experiment on Drought Tolerant Maize Genotype

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    Uneven and low precipitation areas of Nepal are continuously suffering from drought and received low productivity because of unavailability of suitable drought tolerant maize genotype. An attempt has been made first time in Nepal by constructing an automated rainout shelter with soil moisture based automated drip irrigation system at National Maize Research Program in 2018-2019 to conduct an experiment on drought tolerant maize genotype. The rainout shelters automatically covers the cropping area as soon as the rain sensor received a single drop of precipitation and also if the light intensity decreased to value set in the control panel. Likewise, the soil water level in different treatments were maintained on the basis of the treatment controlled with automatic drip irrigation system set to irrigate at threshold value set in the microcontroller. The complete system had found very useful in determining accurate amount of water required to cultivate drought tolerant maize genotype. We have tested drought tolerant variety RampurSo3Fo8 under 10 level of irrigation and it was determined that 495.2 mm of water is maximum level of water to produce highest yield of 3.32 t/ha whereas 445.6 mm to 247.6 mm of water could can be manage to produce competitive yield without any reduction. An experiment under such kind of infrastructure provide useful information on irrigation management practices required for drought variety in the natural environment. The research output also guides farmers and agriculturist in making Nepalese agricultural more sustainable, mechanized and productive

    Outcome of gastrointestinal surgery during COVID-19 lockdown in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal

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    Introduction: Perioperative strategies have been changing due to the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent the risk of postoperative complications and transmission of infection. This study was aimed to assess the outcome of gastrointestinal surgery and the risk of transmission by implementing COVID-19 testing criteria and surgical strategy. Method: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at the department of surgery at Patan Hospital, Nepal, during COVID-19 lock-down from 24 march to 15 June 2020. All patients who underwent gastrointestinal (GI) surgery were included. High-risk patients (as defined by the Hospital Incident Command System, HICS) were tested for COVID-19 preoperatively. Surgery was performed in COVID operating room with full protective gear. Low-risk patients were not tested for COVID-19 preoperatively and performed surgery in non-COVID OR. Data from patient’s case-sheets were analyzed descriptively for age, gender, comorbidities, hospital stay, RT-PCR results, surgeries, and postoperative complications. Result: There were total 44 GI surgeries performed; 31(70.5%) were emergency, 5(11.3%) semi-emergency and 8(18.2%) oncology. There were 11(25%) patients tested for COVID-19 preoperatively and were negative. Nine HCWs tested for COVID-19 randomly were negative. Severe postoperative complications developed in 3 patients, with one mortality. Conclusion: Among GI surgeries, there was no increase in postoperative complications and transmission of COVID-19 to the patients or HCWs following the implementation of standard testing criteria and surgical strategy

    How to build a pandemic resilient agrifood system? A review of policy lessons from COVID-19 in Bangladesh

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    The COVID-19 pandemic impacted most of the Bangladesh population and almost all sectors of its economy, including the agriculture and food systems. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) and development partners took measures to prevent the spread of the virus and keep the agriculture and food systems running, and farmers and communities adopted local techniques as resilience measures to adapt to and lessen the effect of the virus. This review attempts to synthesize the knowledge on impacts of COVID-19 on Bangladesh agriculture and food systems, and document government's and development partners' policy responses and measures to COVID-19 to mitigate the impacts and farmers' coping strategies as effective resilience measures. The aim here is to provide a comprehensive picture of impacts and policy lessons to the Bangladesh government and development partners to effectively manage any future pandemics such as COVID-19 in the country and in developing countries of Asia. The core lesson is that agriculture needs a transformation to technology intensive (both digital and non-digital), efficient supply chains (i.e., shorter value chains), mechanization, farmer organizations led, and consumer connected (e.g., online platforms and direct marketing channels) with various kinds of resilience measures, including information sharing systems, financial mechanisms and social safety nets. A diversified approach is required for perishable and non-perishable commodities. There is also need of international effort to minimize trade and supply disruption and prevention of export ban and similar policies to reduce the impact on food system and associated livelihoods

    Diterpenes from a soft coral Lobophytum pauciflorum of Indian coast

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    An improved optimization technique for estimation of solar photovoltaic parameters

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    The nonlinear current vs voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar PV make its modelling difficult. Optimization techniques are the best tool for identifying the parameters of nonlinear models. Even though, there are different optimization techniques used for parameter estimation of solar PV, still the best optimized results are not achieved to date. In this paper, Wind Driven Optimization (WDO) technique is proposed as the new method for identifying the parameters of solar PV. The accuracy and convergence time of the proposed method is compared with results of Pattern Search (PS), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Simulated Annealing (SA) for single diode and double diode models of solar PV. Furthermore, for performance validation, the parameters obtained through WDO are compared with hybrid Bee Pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA), Generalized Oppositional Teaching Learning Based Optimization (GOTLBO), Artificial Bee Swarm Optimization (ABSO), and Harmony Search (HS). The obtained results clearly reveal that WDO algorithm can provide accurate optimized values with less number of iterations at different environmental conditions. Therefore, the WDO can be recommended as the best optimization algorithm for parameter estimation of solar PV

    ClpP protease activation results from the reorganization of the electrostatic interaction networks at the entrance pores

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    Bacterial ClpP is a highly conserved, cylindrical, self-compartmentalizing serine protease required for maintaining cellular proteostasis. Small molecule acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) and activators of self-compartmentalized proteases 1 (ACP1s) cause dysregulation and activation of ClpP, leading to bacterial cell death, highlighting their potential use as novel antibiotics. Structural changes in Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia co ClpP upon binding to novel ACP1 and ADEP analogs were probed by X-ray crystallography, methyl-TROSY NMR, and small angle X-ray scattering. ACP1 and ADEP induce distinct conformational changes in the ClpP structure. However, reorganization of electrostatic interaction networks at the ClpP entrance pores is necessary and sufficient for activation. Further activation is achieved by formation of ordered N-terminal axial loops and reduction in the structural heterogeneity of the ClpP cylinder. Activating mutations recapitulate the structural effects of small molecule activator binding. Our data, together with previous findings, provide a structural basis for a unified mechanism of compound-based ClpP activation2CONSELHO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO CIENTÍFICO E TECNOLÓGICO - CNPQCOORDENAÇÃO DE APERFEIÇOAMENTO DE PESSOAL DE NÍVEL SUPERIOR - CAPESFUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO - FAPESP306943/2015-8; 420567/2016-099999.004913/2015-092015/15822-1; 2012/01953-9; 2016/05019-0; 2012/50161-8Precision Medicine Initiative (PRiME) at the University of Toronto internal fellowship [PMRF2019-007]; Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) postdoctoral fellowshipCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); CNPq-Brazil fellowship [202192/2015-6]; Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation postdoctoral fellowship; Ontario Graduate Scholarship (OGS)Ontario Graduate Scholarship; Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto; Centre for Pharmaceutical Oncology (University of Toronto); CIHR Training Program in Protein Folding and Interaction Dynamics: Principles and Diseases fellowshipCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) [TGF-53910]; University of Toronto Fellowship from the Department of Biochemistry; OGS fellowship; NSERC PGS-D2 fellowship; CIHR Emerging Team Grants from the Institute of Infection and ImmunityCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) [XNE-86945]; CIHR Project grantCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) [PJT-148564]; Global Affairs Canada (Canada); CAPES (Brazil)CAPES [99999.004913/2015-09]; NSERCNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada [RGPIN-2015-04877, DG-20234]; Canada Research Chairs ProgramCanada Research Chairs; CIHR new investigator programCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); FAPESPFundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) [2015/15822-1, 2012/01953-9, 2016/05019-0, 2012/50161-8]; CNPqNational Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) [306943/2015-8, 420567/2016-0]; AbbVie [1097737]; BayerBayer AG [1097737]; Boehringer IngelheimBoehringer Ingelheim [1097737]; Genome Canada through Ontario Genomics Institute GrantGenome Canada [1097737, OGI-055]; GlaxoSmithKlineGlaxoSmithKline [1097737]; JanssenJohnson & Johnson USAJanssen Biotech Inc [1097737]; Lilly CanadaEli Lilly [1097737]; MerckMerck & Company [1097737]; Novartis Research Foundation [1097737]; Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation [1097737]; PfizerPfizer [1097737]; TakedaTakeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd [1097737]; Wellcome Trust GrantWellcome Trust [1097737, 092809/Z/10/Z]; Canada Foundation for InnovationCanada Foundation for Innovation; NSERCNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; University of Saskatchewan; Government of Saskatchewan; Western Economic Diversification Canada; National Research Council Canada; CIHRCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Utilisation of an operative difficulty grading scale for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Background A reliable system for grading operative difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy would standardise description of findings and reporting of outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate a difficulty grading system (Nassar scale), testing its applicability and consistency in two large prospective datasets. Methods Patient and disease-related variables and 30-day outcomes were identified in two prospective cholecystectomy databases: the multi-centre prospective cohort of 8820 patients from the recent CholeS Study and the single-surgeon series containing 4089 patients. Operative data and patient outcomes were correlated with Nassar operative difficultly scale, using Kendall’s tau for dichotomous variables, or Jonckheere–Terpstra tests for continuous variables. A ROC curve analysis was performed, to quantify the predictive accuracy of the scale for each outcome, with continuous outcomes dichotomised, prior to analysis. Results A higher operative difficulty grade was consistently associated with worse outcomes for the patients in both the reference and CholeS cohorts. The median length of stay increased from 0 to 4 days, and the 30-day complication rate from 7.6 to 24.4% as the difficulty grade increased from 1 to 4/5 (both p < 0.001). In the CholeS cohort, a higher difficulty grade was found to be most strongly associated with conversion to open and 30-day mortality (AUROC = 0.903, 0.822, respectively). On multivariable analysis, the Nassar operative difficultly scale was found to be a significant independent predictor of operative duration, conversion to open surgery, 30-day complications and 30-day reintervention (all p < 0.001). Conclusion We have shown that an operative difficulty scale can standardise the description of operative findings by multiple grades of surgeons to facilitate audit, training assessment and research. It provides a tool for reporting operative findings, disease severity and technical difficulty and can be utilised in future research to reliably compare outcomes according to case mix and intra-operative difficulty