143 research outputs found

    Genetic predisposition for sudden cardiac death in myocardial ischaemia: the Arrhythmia Genetics in the NEtherlandS study

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    Sudden cardiac death from ventricular fibrillation during myocardial infarction is a leading cause of total and cardiovascular mortality. This multifactorial, complex condition clusters in families, suggesting a substantial genetic cause. We carried out a genomewide association study (GWAS) for sudden cardiac death, in the AGNES (Arrhythmia Genetics in the Netherlands) population, consisting of patients with (cases) and without (controls) ventricular fibrillation during a first ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The most significant association was found at chromosome 21q21 (rs2824292; odds ratio = 1.78, 95% CI 1.47–2.13, P = 3.3 × 10−10), 98 kb proximal of the CXADR gene, encoding the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor. This locus has not previously been implicated in arrhythmia susceptibility. Further research on the mechanism of this locus will ultimately provide novel insight into arrhythmia mechanisms in this condition

    Identification of an INa-dependent and Ito-mediated proarrhythmic mechanism in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells of a Brugada syndrome patient

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    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia commonly associated with SCN5A mutations, yet its ionic mechanisms remain unclear due to a lack of cellular models. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from a BrS patient (BrS1) to evaluate the roles of Na+ currents (INa) and transient outward K+ currents (Ito) in BrS induced action potential (AP) changes. To understand the role of these current changes in repolarization we employed dynamic clamp to "electronically express" IK1 and restore normal resting membrane potentials and allow normal recovery of the inactivating currents, INa, ICa and Ito. HiPSC-CMs were generated from BrS1 with a compound SCN5A mutation (p. A226V & p. R1629X) and a healthy sibling control (CON1). Genome edited hiPSC-CMs (BrS2) with a milder p. T1620M mutation and a commercial control (CON2) were also studied. CON1, CON2 and BrS2, had unaltered peak INa amplitudes, and normal APs whereas BrS1, with over 75% loss of INa, displayed a loss-of-INa basal AP morphology (at 1.0 Hz) manifested by a reduced maximum upstroke velocity (by ~80%, p < 0.001) and AP amplitude (p < 0.001), and an increased phase-1 repolarization pro-arrhythmic AP morphology (at 0.1 Hz) in ~25% of cells characterized by marked APD shortening (~65% shortening, p < 0.001). Moreover, Ito densities of BrS1 and CON1 were comparable and increased from 1.0 Hz to 0.1 Hz by ~ 100%. These data indicate that a repolarization deficit could be a mechanism underlying BrS

    Genome-wide association of multiple complex traits in outbred mice by ultra-low-coverage sequencing

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    Two bottlenecks impeding the genetic analysis of complex traits in rodents are access to mapping populations able to deliver gene-level mapping resolution and the need for population-specific genotyping arrays and haplotype reference panels. Here we combine low-coverage (0.15×) sequencing with a new method to impute the ancestral haplotype space in 1,887 commercially available outbred mice. We mapped 156 unique quantitative trait loci for 92 phenotypes at a 5% false discovery rate. Gene-level mapping resolution was achieved at about one-fifth of the loci, implicating Unc13c and Pgc1a at loci for the quality of sleep, Adarb2 for home cage activity, Rtkn2 for intensity of reaction to startle, Bmp2 for wound healing, Il15 and Id2 for several T cell measures and Prkca for bone mineral content. These findings have implications for diverse areas of mammalian biology and demonstrate how genome-wide association studies can be extended via low-coverage sequencing to species with highly recombinant outbred populations


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    Psychotropic drugs can pose the risk of acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Unexpected autopsy-negative sudden death in patients taking psychotropic drugs may be associated with prolonged QT intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias. We analyzed genes that encode for cardiac ion channels and potentially associated with LQTS, examining specifically the potassium channel genes KCNQ1 and KCNH2 in 10 cases of sudden death involving patients administered psychotropic medication in which autopsy findings identified no clear cause of death. We amplified and sequenced all exons of KCNQ1 and KCNH2, identifying G643S, missense polymorphism in KCNQ1, in 6 of the 10 cases. A study analysis indicated that only 11% of 381 healthy Japanese individuals carry this polymorphism. Reports of previous functional analyses indicate that the G643S polymorphism in the KCNQ1 potassium channel protein causes mild IKs channel dysfunction. Our present study suggests that administering psychotropic drug therapy to individuals carrying the G643S polymorphism may heighten the risk of prolonged QT intervals and life-threatening arrhythmias. Thus, screening for the G643S polymorphism before prescribing psychotropic drugs may help reduce the risk of unexpected sudden death2013博士(歯学)松本歯科大

    A common polymorphism of the human cardiac sodium channel alpha subunit (SCN5A) gene is associated with sudden cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease

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    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio =1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association. © 2015 Marcsa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

    Refractory dispersion promotes conduction disturbance and arrhythmias in a Scn5a+/− mouse model

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    Accentuated right ventricular (RV) gradients in action potential duration (APD) have been implicated in the arrhythmogenicity observed in Brugada syndrome in studies assuming that ventricular effective refractory periods (VERPs) vary in concert with APDs. The present experiments use a genetically modified mouse model to explore spatial heterogeneities in VERP that in turn might affect conduction velocity, thereby causing arrhythmias. Activation latencies, APDs and VERPs recorded during programmed S1S2 protocols were compared in RV and left ventricular (LV) epicardia and endocardia of Langendorff-perfused wild-type (WT) and Scn5a+/− hearts. Scn5a+/− and WT hearts showed similar patterns of shorter VERPs in RV than LV epicardia, and in epicardia than endocardia. However, Scn5a+/− hearts showed longer VERPs, despite shorter APD90s, than WT in all regions examined. The pro- and anti-arrhythmic agents flecainide and quinidine increased regional VERPs despite respectively decreasing and increasing the corresponding APD90s particularly in Scn5a+/− RV epicardia. In contrast, Scn5a+/− hearts showed greater VERP gradients between neighbouring regions, particularly RV transmural gradients, than WT (9.1 ± 1.1 vs. 5.7 ± 0.5 ms, p < 0.05, n = 12). Flecainide increased (to 21 ± 0.9 ms, p < 0.05, n = 6) but quinidine decreased (to 4.5 ± 0.5 ms, p < 0.05, n = 6) these gradients, particularly across the Scn5a+/− RV. Finally, Scn5a+/− hearts showed greater conduction slowing than WT following S2 stimuli, particularly with flecainide administration. Rather than arrhythmogenesis resulting from increased transmural repolarization gradients in an early, phase 2, reentrant excitation mechanism, the present findings implicate RV VERP gradients in potential reentrant mechanisms involving impulse conduction slowed by partial refractoriness