229 research outputs found

    Listeria monocytogenes : nog steeds een probleem?

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    Listeria monocytogenes is net als vele andere bacteriële voedselpathogenen al tientallen jaren bekend. De meeste grondstoffen voor voedingsmiddelen komen uit de akker- en tuinbouw, de veehouderij en de visserij. Besmetting vindt daar plaats met micro-organismen afkomstig uit grond, fecaliën, water, lucht en via ongedierte

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

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    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at 37 °C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6 h at 10 °C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (P <0.05) than the reduction of 0.2 log unit on belt material without additives. Reductions were significantly less (P <0.05) in the presence of food residue. At 37 °C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6 h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 °C and 10 °C and high humidity (60–75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly drie

    Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks

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    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses

    Occurrence and characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw meat, raw milk, and street vended juices in Bangladesh

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    The major objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in different types of food samples and to compare their genetic relatedness with STEC strains previously isolated from animal sources in Bangladesh. We investigated a total of 213 food samples, including 90 raw meat samples collected from retail butcher shops, 20 raw milk samples from domestic cattle, and 103 fresh juice samples from street vendors in Dhaka city. We found that more than 68% (n=62) of the raw meat samples were positive for the stx gene(s); 34% (n=21) of buffalo meats and 66% (n=41) of beef. Approximately 10% (n=2) of the raw milk and 8% (n=8) of the fresh juice samples were positive for stx. We isolated STEC O157 from seven meat samples (7.8%), of which two were from buffalo meats and five from beef; and no other STEC serotypes could be isolated. We could not isolate STEC from any of the stx-positive raw milk and juice samples. The STEC O157 isolates from raw meats were positive for the stx2, eae, katP, etpD, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli hly virulence genes, and they belonged to three different phage types: 8 (14.3%), 31 (42.8%), and 32 (42.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed six distinct patterns among seven isolates of STEC O157, suggesting a heterogeneous clonal diversity. Of the six PFGE patterns, one was identical and the other two were =90% related to PFGE patterns of STEC O157 strains previously isolated from animal feces, indicating that raw meats are readily contaminated with fecal materials. This study represents the first survey of STEC in the food chain in Bangladesh

    Medicine, Medea and the Media: The Rise and Fall of Roy Meadow

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    For more than three decades eminent British paediatrician, Professor Sir Roy Meadow, was courted by the media for his startling pronouncements on maternal child murder and abuse, including his now infamous Meadow's Law and his creation ofMunchausen Syndrome by Proxy. His compelling evidence made headline news in the trials of several women, including Sally Clark, Donna Anthony, Angela Cannings and Trupti Patel. Journalists, however, persistently failed to investigate Meadow's potent claims, using the eminent paediatrician as a primary source to create highly newsworthy news narratives. Through an analysis of newspaper stories, primarily in the London Times, this study maps the rise and fall of Roy Meadow. My critique deploys a narrative trope I have called the Medea-Factor to explore the fictive qualities of news, and to develop an argument for understanding how Roy Meadow became the media's national authority on maternal child murder and abuse, as well as how his glittering career came to an ignominious end. An important key to revealing Meadow's power-and why it was that journalists continued to privilege his voice for so long--came in the unearthing of Meadow's nineteenth-century counterpart, and the first primary definer of infanticide news, Dr Edwin Lankester. This study concludes that the pattern for creating news narratives about mothers accused of murdering their children is so compelling that journalists, even when faced with the evidence of flawed science, will continue to create narratives shaped by the ideology ofthe Medea-Factor. The thesis is situated within the discipline of English, and its approach and methodology belong to that discipline. Its textual sources, however, come from newspapers, and to the extent that it is concerned with the use of expert witnesses the thesis engages with matters important to the discipline of journalism and is therefore interdisciplinary

    Different virucidal activities of hyperbranched quaternary ammonium coatings on poliovirus and influenza virus

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    Virucidal activity of immobilized quaternary ammonium compounds (IQACs) coated onto glass and plastic surfaces was tested against enveloped influenza A (H1N1) virus and nonenveloped poliovirus Sabin1. The IQACs tested were virucidal against the influenza virus within 2 min, but no virucidal effect against poliovirus was found in 6 h

    Intracellular proliferation of Legionella pneumophila in Hartmannella vermiformis in aquatic biofilms grown on plasticized polyvinyl chloride

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    The need for protozoa for the proliferation of Legionella pneumophila in aquatic habitats is still not fully understood and is even questioned by some investigators. This study shows the in vivo growth of L. pneumophila in protozoa in aquatic biofilms developing at high concentrations on plasticized polyvinyl chloride in a batch system with autoclaved tap water. The inoculum, a mixed microbial community including indigenous L. pneumophila originating from a tap water system, was added in an unfiltered as well as filtered (cellulose nitrate, 3.0-mum pore size) state. Both the attached and suspended biomasses were examined for their total amounts of ATP, for culturable L. pneumophila, and for their concentrations of protozoa. L. pneumophila grew to high numbers (6.3 log CFU/cm(2)) only in flasks with an unfiltered inoculum. Filtration obviously removed the growth-supporting factor, but it did not affect biofilm formation, as determined by measuring ATP. Cultivation, direct counting, and 18S ribosomal DNA-targeted PCR with subsequent sequencing revealed the presence of Hartmannella vermiformis in all flasks in which L. pneumophila multiplied and also when cyclobeximide had been added. Fluorescent in situ hybridization clearly demonstrated the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in trophozoites of H. vermiformis, with 25.9% +/- 10.5% of the trophozoites containing L. pneumophila on day 10 and >90% containing L. pneumophila on day 14. Calculations confirmed that intracellular growth was most likely the only way for L. pneumophila to proliferate within the biofilm. Higher biofilm concentrations, measured as amounts of ATP, gave higher L. pneumophila concentrations, and therefore the growth of L. pneumophila within engineered water systems can be limited by controlling biofilm formation

    Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

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    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log10 for poliovirus and close to 4 log10 for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log10 reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested
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