108 research outputs found

    Establishing an algorithm for molecular genetic diagnostics in 127 families with juvenile nephronophthisis

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    Establishing an algorithm for molecular genetic diagnostics in 127 families with juvenile nephronophthisis.BackgroundJuvenile nephronophthisis (NPH1), an autosomal recessive cystic disease of the kidney, represents the most common genetic cause of end-stage renal disease in the first two decades of life. On the basis of identification of the gene (NPHP1) defective in NPH1 and the presence of homozygous deletions of NPHP1 in the majority of NPH1 patients, molecular genetic diagnosis for NPH1 is now possible. Molecular genetic testing offers the only method for definite diagnosis of NPH1 and avoids invasive diagnostic measures like renal biopsy.MethodsWe examined 127 families (204 patients) with the presumed diagnosis of NPH using molecular genetic diagnostic techniques. In 68 families, renal biopsy was performed and was consistent with NPH, and in 61 families, there was more than one affected child ("multiplex families").ResultsIn 74 families (115 patients), there was proof of the diagnosis of NPH1 by detection of a homozygous deletion of the NPHP1 gene, and in 5 families a heterozygous deletion in combination with a point mutation in NPHP1 was demonstrated. Furthermore, for 16 families, NPH1 was excluded with high likelihood by linkage analysis, and for 20 families by detection of heterozygosity for two newly identified polymorphic markers within the deletion region. In 5 of the remaining 12 families, which were noninformative for these markers, fluorescence in situ hybridization did not detect any further heterozygous deletions.ConclusionsThe diagnosis of NPH1 was proven by molecular genetic techniques in 62% of families with one or more children with the presumed diagnosis of NPH. We present evidence that there is a fourth locus for NPH, since only 6 of the 26 multiplex families in whom the diagnosis of NPH1 was excluded were compatible with linkage to other loci for NPH. On the basis of the presented data, we propose an algorithm for molecular genetic diagnostics in NPH

    Expanding the Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of KRT1, KRT2 and KRT10 Mutations in Keratinopathic Ichthyosis

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    Twenty-six families with keratinopathic ichthyoses (epidermolytic ichthyosis, superficial epidermolytic ichthyosis or congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma) were studied. Epidermolytic ichthyosis is caused by mutations in the genes KRT1 or KRT10, mutations in the gene KRT2 lead to superficial epidermolytic ichthyosis, and congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma is caused by frameshift mutations in the genes KRT10 or KRT1, which lead to the phenomenon of revertant mosaicism. In this study mutations were found in KRT1, KRT2 and KRT10, including 7 mutations that are novel pathogenic variants. Novel clinical features found in patients with congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma are described, such as mental retardation, spasticity, facial dysmorphisms, symblepharon and malposition of the 4th toe

    Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis in Alopecia Areata Resolves HLA Associations and Reveals Two New Susceptibility Loci

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    Alopecia areata (AA) is a prevalent autoimmune disease with ten known susceptibility loci. Here we perform the first meta-analysis in AA by combining data from two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and replication with supplemented ImmunoChip data for a total of 3,253 cases and 7,543 controls. The strongest region of association is the MHC, where we fine-map 4 independent effects, all implicating HLA-DR as a key etiologic driver. Outside the MHC, we identify two novel loci that exceed statistical significance, containing ACOXL/BCL2L11(BIM) (2q13); GARP (LRRC32) (11q13.5), as well as a third nominally significant region SH2B3(LNK)/ ATXN2 (12q24.12). Candidate susceptibility gene expression analysis in these regions demonstrates expression in relevant immune cells and the hair follicle. We integrate our results with data from seven other autoimmune diseases and provide insight into the alignment of AA within these disorders. Our findings uncover new molecular pathways disrupted in AA, including autophagy/apoptosis, TGFĂź/Tregs and JAK kinase signaling, and support the causal role of aberrant immune processes in AA

    Meta-Analysis of Mutations in ALOX12B or ALOXE3 Identified in a Large Cohort of 224 Patients

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    The autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI) are a nonsyndromic group of cornification disorders that includes lamellar ichthyosis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and harlequin ichthyosis. To date mutations in ten genes have been identified to cause ARCI: TGM1, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, NIPAL4, CYP4F22, ABCA12, PNPLA1, CERS3, SDR9C7, and SULT2B1. The main focus of this report is the mutational spectrum of the genes ALOX12B and ALOXE3, which encode the epidermal lipoxygenases arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, i.e., 12R type (12R-LOX), and the epidermis-type lipoxygenase-3 (eLOX3), respectively. Deficiency of 12R-LOX and eLOX3 disrupts the epidermal barrier function and leads to an abnormal epidermal differentiation. The type and the position of the mutations may influence the ARCI phenotype; most patients present with a mild erythrodermic ichthyosis, and only few individuals show severe erythroderma. To date, 88 pathogenic mutations in ALOX12B and 27 pathogenic mutations in ALOXE3 have been reported in the literature. Here, we presented a large cohort of 224 genetically characterized ARCI patients who carried mutations in these genes. We added 74 novel mutations in ALOX12B and 25 novel mutations in ALOXE3. We investigated the spectrum of mutations in ALOX12B and ALOXE3 in our cohort and additionally in the published mutations, the distribution of these mutations within the gene and gene domains, and potential hotspots and recurrent mutations

    Autosomal-dominant hypotrichosis with woolly hair : novel gene locus on chromosome 4q35.1-q35.2

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    Hypotrichosis simplex (HS) with and without woolly hair (WH) comprises a group of rare, monogenic disorders of hair loss. Patients present with a diffuse loss of scalp and/or body hair, which usually begins in early childhood and progresses into adulthood. Some of the patients also show hair that is tightly curled. Approximately 10 genes for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms of HS have been identified in the last decade, among them five genes for the dominant form. We collected blood and buccal samples from 17 individuals of a large British family with HS and WH. After having sequenced all known dominant genes for HS in this family without the identification of any disease causing mutation, we performed a genome-wide scan, using the HumanLinkage-24 BeadChip, followed by a classical linkage analysis; and whole exome-sequencing (WES). Evidence for linkage was found for a region on chromosome 4q35.1-q35.2 with a maximum LOD score of 3.61. WES led to the identification of a mutation in the gene SORBS2, encoding sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2. Unfortunately, we could not find an additional mutation in any other patient/family with HS; and in cell culture, we could not observe any difference between cloned wildtype and mutant SORBS2 using western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Therefore, at present, SORBS2 cannot be considered a definite disease gene for this phenotype. However, the locus on chromosome 4q is a robust and novel finding for hypotrichosis with woolly hair. Further fine mapping and sequencing efforts are therefore warranted in order to confirm SORBS2 as a plausible HS disease gene

    Renal tubular HIF-2α expression requires VHL inactivation and causes fibrosis and cysts.

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    The Hypoxia-inducible transcription Factor (HIF) represents an important adaptive mechanism under hypoxia, whereas sustained activation may also have deleterious effects. HIF activity is determined by the oxygen regulated α-subunits HIF-1α or HIF-2α. Both are regulated by oxygen dependent degradation, which is controlled by the tumor suppressor "von Hippel-Lindau" (VHL), the gatekeeper of renal tubular growth control. HIF appears to play a particular role for the kidney, where renal EPO production, organ preservation from ischemia-reperfusion injury and renal tumorigenesis are prominent examples. Whereas HIF-1α is inducible in physiological renal mouse, rat and human tubular epithelia, HIF-2α is never detected in these cells, in any species. In contrast, distinct early lesions of biallelic VHL inactivation in kidneys of the hereditary VHL syndrome show strong HIF-2α expression. Furthermore, knockout of VHL in the mouse tubular apparatus enables HIF-2α expression. Continuous transgenic expression of HIF-2α by the Ksp-Cadherin promotor leads to renal fibrosis and insufficiency, next to multiple renal cysts. In conclusion, VHL appears to specifically repress HIF-2α in renal epithelia. Unphysiological expression of HIF-2α in tubular epithelia has deleterious effects. Our data are compatible with dedifferentiation of renal epithelial cells by sustained HIF-2α expression. However, HIF-2α overexpression alone is insufficient to induce tumors. Thus, our data bear implications for renal tumorigenesis, epithelial differentiation and renal repair mechanisms

    The brain in myotonic dystrophy 1 and 2: evidence for a predominant white matter disease

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    Myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are progressive multisystemic disorders with potential brain involvement. We compared 22 myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 22 myotonic dystrophy type 2 clinically and neuropsychologically well-characterized patients and a corresponding healthy control group using structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T (T1/T2/diffusion-weighted). Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics were applied for voxel-wise analysis of cerebral grey and white matter affection (Pcorrected < 0.05). We further examined the association of structural brain changes with clinical and neuropsychological data. White matter lesions rated visually were more prevalent and severe in myotonic dystrophy type 1 compared with controls, with frontal white matter most prominently affected in both disorders, and temporal lesions restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Voxel-based morphometry analyses demonstrated extensive white matter involvement in all cerebral lobes, brainstem and corpus callosum in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, while grey matter decrease (cortical areas, thalamus, putamen) was restricted to myotonic dystrophy type 1. Accordingly, we found more prominent white matter affection in myotonic dystrophy type 1 than myotonic dystrophy type 2 by diffusion tensor imaging. Association fibres throughout the whole brain, limbic system fibre tracts, the callosal body and projection fibres (e.g. internal/external capsules) were affected in myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2. Central motor pathways were exclusively impaired in myotonic dystrophy type 1. We found mild executive and attentional deficits in our patients when neuropsychological tests were corrected for manual motor dysfunctioning. Regression analyses revealed associations of white matter affection with several clinical parameters in both disease entities, but not with neuropsychological performance. We showed that depressed mood and fatigue were more prominent in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 with less white matter affection (early disease stages), contrary to patients with myotonic dystrophy type 2. Thus, depression in myotonic dystrophies might be a reactive adjustment disorder rather than a direct consequence of structural brain damage. Associations of white matter affection with age/disease duration as well as patterns of cerebral water diffusion parameters pointed towards an ongoing process of myelin destruction and/or axonal loss in our cross-sectional study design. Our data suggest that both myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2 are serious white matter diseases with prominent callosal body and limbic system affection. White matter changes dominated the extent of grey matter changes, which might argue against Wallerian degeneration as the major cause of white matter affection in myotonic dystrophies

    Elective cancer surgery in COVID-19-free surgical pathways during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: An international, multicenter, comparative cohort study

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    PURPOSE As cancer surgery restarts after the first COVID-19 wave, health care providers urgently require data to determine where elective surgery is best performed. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19–free surgical pathways were associated with lower postoperative pulmonary complication rates compared with hospitals with no defined pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS This international, multicenter cohort study included patients who underwent elective surgery for 10 solid cancer types without preoperative suspicion of SARS-CoV-2. Participating hospitals included patients from local emergence of SARS-CoV-2 until April 19, 2020. At the time of surgery, hospitals were defined as having a COVID-19–free surgical pathway (complete segregation of the operating theater, critical care, and inpatient ward areas) or no defined pathway (incomplete or no segregation, areas shared with patients with COVID-19). The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, unexpected ventilation). RESULTS Of 9,171 patients from 447 hospitals in 55 countries, 2,481 were operated on in COVID-19–free surgical pathways. Patients who underwent surgery within COVID-19–free surgical pathways were younger with fewer comorbidities than those in hospitals with no defined pathway but with similar proportions of major surgery. After adjustment, pulmonary complication rates were lower with COVID-19–free surgical pathways (2.2% v 4.9%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.86). This was consistent in sensitivity analyses for low-risk patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 1/2), propensity score–matched models, and patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 preoperative tests. The postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection rate was also lower in COVID-19–free surgical pathways (2.1% v 3.6%; aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.76). CONCLUSION Within available resources, dedicated COVID-19–free surgical pathways should be established to provide safe elective cancer surgery during current and before future SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks
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