1,739 research outputs found

    Event-Based control of depth of hypnosis in anesthesia

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    Background and Objective: In this paper, we propose the use of an event-based control strategy for the closed-loop control of the depth of hypnosis in anesthesia by using propofol administration and the bispectral index as a controlled variable. Methods: A new event generator with high noise-filtering properties is employed in addition to a PIDPlus controller. The tuning of the parameters is performed off-line by using genetic algorithms by considering a given data set of patients. Results: The effectiveness and robustness of the method is verified in simulation by implementing a Monte Carlo method to address the intra-patient and inter-patient variability. A comparison with a standard PID control structure shows that the event-based control system achieves a reduction of the total variation of the manipulated variable of 93% in the induction phase and of 95% in the maintenance phase. Conclusions: The use of event based automatic control in anesthesia yields a fast induction phase with bounded overshoot and an acceptable disturbance rejection. A comparison with a standard PID control structure shows that the technique effectively mimics the behavior of the anesthesiologist by providing a significant decrement of the total variation of the manipulated variable

    Detection of serum allergen-specific IgE in atopic dogs tested in northern Italy: Preliminary study

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    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a pruritic allergic skin disease associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. IgE is detected using Serum Allergen-Specific IgE test (SAT) in order to identify allergens. The present study aims to identify the environmental allergens in atopic dogs living in Northern Italy using SAT. The screening SAT (sSAT), using a monoclonal antibody cocktail-based ELISA to identify indoor and outdoor allergens, was performed. In all positive samples, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody ELISA test was performed to extend panel of allergens. Out of 117 selected dogs, 69 were included in the study; 71% were positive and 29% were negative to sSAT. Among the 49 positive sSAT, 53% were positive for both indoor and outdoor, 38.8% only for indoor, and 8.2% only for outdoor allergens. This is the first study on the frequency of allergens involved in CAD in Italy using SAT. IgE hypersensitivity in atopic dogs of Northern Italy is usually associated with indoor allergens, primarily house dust mites. Among the outdoor allergens, an important role was played by Rumex acetosa. Polysensitization also commonly occurs. Therefore, since the numerous factors affect the IgE positivity in CAD, specific panels for geographical areas should be considered and re-evaluated at time intervals

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum