458 research outputs found

    Simultaneous Measurements of Mitochondrial NADH and Ca2+ during Increased Work in Intact Rat Heart Trabeculae

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    AbstractThe main goal of this study is to investigate the role of mitochondrial [Ca2+], [Ca2+]m, in the possible up-regulation of the NADH production rate during increased workload. Such up-regulation is necessary to support increased flux through the electron transport chain and increased ATP synthesis rates. Intact cardiac trabeculae were loaded with Rhod-2(AM), and [Ca2+]m and mitochondrial [NADH] ([NADH]m) were simultaneously measured during increased pacing frequency. It was found that 53% of Rhod-2 was localized in mitochondria. Increased pacing frequency caused a fast, followed by a slow rise of the Rhod-2 signal, which could be attributed to an abrupt increase in resting cytosolic [Ca2+], and a more gradual rise of [Ca2+]m, respectively. When the pacing frequency was increased from 0.25 to 2Hz, the slow Rhod-2 component and the NADH signal increased by 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on a new calibration method, the 18% increase of the Rhod-2 signal was calculated to correspond to a 43% increase of [Ca2+]m. There was also a close temporal relationship between the rise (time constant ∼25s) and fall (time constant ∼65s) of [Ca2+]m and [NADH]m when the pacing frequency was increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that increased workload and [Ca2+]c cause increased [Ca2+]m and consequently up-regulation of the NADH production rate

    Calmodulin Mediates Differential Sensitivity of CaMKII and Calcineurin to Local Ca2+ in Cardiac Myocytes

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    AbstractCalmodulin (CaM) mediates Ca-dependent regulation of numerous pathways in the heart, including CaM-dependent kinase (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN), yet the local Ca2+ signals responsible for their selective activation are unclear. To assess when and where CaM, CaMKII, and CaN may be activated in the cardiac myocyte, we integrated new mechanistic computational models of CaM, CaMKII, and CaN with the Shannon-Bers model of excitation-contraction coupling in the rabbit ventricular myocyte. These models are validated with independent in vitro data. In the intact myocyte, model simulations predict that CaM is highly activated in the dyadic cleft during each beat, but not appreciably in the cytosol. CaMKII-δC was almost insensitive to cytosolic Ca due to relatively low CaM affinity. Dyadic cleft CaMKII exhibits dynamic frequency-dependent responses to Ca, yet autophosphorylates only when local phosphatases are suppressed. In contrast, dyadic cleft CaN in beating myocytes is predicted to be constitutively active, whereas the extremely high affinity of CaN for CaM allows gradual integration of small cytosolic CaM signals. Reversing CaM affinities for CaMKII and CaN also reverses their characteristic local responses. Deactivation of both CaMKII and CaN seems dominated by Ca dissociation from the complex (versus Ca-CaM dissociation from the target). In summary, the different affinities of CaM for CaMKII and CaN determine their sensitivity to local Ca signals in cardiac myocytes

    Reverse Mode of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump and Load-Dependent Cytosolic Calcium Decline in Voltage-Clamped Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes

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    AbstractWe have characterized [Ca]i decline in voltage-clamped rabbit ventricular myocytes with progressive increases in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium load. “Backflux” through the SR calcium pump is a critical feature which allows realistically small values for SR calcium leak fluxes to be used. Total cytosolic calcium was calculated from the latter part of [Ca]i decline using rate constants for cellular calcium buffers. Intra-SR calcium buffering characteristics were also deduced. We found that the net SR calcium pump flux and rate of [Ca]i decline decreased as the SR free [Ca] rose, with pump parameters held constant. We have therefore characterized for the first time in intact myocytes both forward and reverse SR calcium pump kinetics as well as intra-SR calcium buffering and SR calcium leak. We conclude that the reverse flux through the SR calcium pump is an important factor in comprehensive understanding of dynamic SR calcium fluxes

    Na/K Pump-Induced [Na]i Gradients in Rat Ventricular Myocytes Measured with Two-Photon Microscopy

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    AbstractVia the Na/Ca and Na/H exchange, intracellular Na concentration ([Na]i) is important in regulating cardiac Ca and contractility. Functional data suggest that [Na]i might be heterogeneous in myocytes that are not in steady state, but little direct spatial information is available. Here we used two-photon microscopy of SBFI to spatially resolve [Na]i in rat ventricular myocytes. In vivo calibration yielded an apparent Kd of 27±2mM Na. Similar resting [Na]i was found using two-photon or single-photon ratiometric measurements with SBFI (10.8±0.7 vs. 11.1±0.7mM). To assess longitudinal [Na]i gradients, Na/K pumps were blocked at one end of the myocyte (locally pipette-applied K-free extracellular solution) and active in the rest of the cell. This led to a marked increase in [Na]i at sites downstream of the pipette (where Na enters the myocyte and Na/K pumps are blocked). [Na]i rise was smaller at upstream sites. This resulted in sustained [Na]i gradients (up to ∼17 mM/120μm cell length). This implies that Na diffusion in cardiac myocytes is slow with respect to trans-sarcolemmal Na transport rates, although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. A simple diffusion model indicated that such gradients require a Na diffusion coefficient of 10–12μm2/s, significantly lower than in aqueous solutions

    Cardiac-specific Conditional Knockout of the 18-kDa Mitochondrial Translocator Protein Protects from Pressure Overload Induced Heart Failure.

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    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by abnormal mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) handling, energy failure and impaired mitophagy resulting in contractile dysfunction and myocyte death. We have previously shown that the 18-kDa mitochondrial translocator protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TSPO) can modulate mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Experiments were designed to test the role of the TSPO in a murine pressure-overload model of HF induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Conditional, cardiac-specific TSPO knockout (KO) mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system. TSPO-KO and wild-type (WT) mice underwent TAC for 8 weeks. TAC-induced HF significantly increased TSPO expression in WT mice, associated with a marked reduction in systolic function, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, complex I activity and energetics. In contrast, TSPO-KO mice undergoing TAC had preserved ejection fraction, and exhibited fewer clinical signs of HF and fibrosis. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and energetics were restored in TSPO KO mice, associated with decreased ROS, improved complex I activity and preserved mitophagy. Thus, HF increases TSPO expression, while preventing this increase limits the progression of HF, preserves ATP production and decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing metabolic failure. These findings suggest that pharmacological interventions directed at TSPO may provide novel therapeutics to prevent or treat HF

    Amylin and Diabetic Cardiomyopathy – Amylin-Induced Sarcolemmal Ca\u3csup\u3e2+\u3c/sup\u3e Leak Is Independent of Diabetic Remodeling of Myocardium

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    Amylin is a pancreatic β-cell hormone co-secreted with insulin, plays a role in normal glucose homeostasis, and forms amyloid in the pancreatic islets of individuals with type-2 diabetes. Aggregated amylin is also found in blood and extra-pancreatic tissues, including myocardium. Myocardial amylin accumulation is associated with myocyte Ca2+ dysregulation in diabetic rats expressing human amylin. Whether deposition of amylin in the heart is a consequence of or a contributor to diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unknown. We used amylin knockout (AKO) mice intravenously infused with either human amylin (i.e, the aggregated form) or non-amyloidogenic (i.e., monomeric) rodent amylin to test the hypothesis that aggregated amylin accumulates in the heart in the absence of diabetes. AKO mice infused with human, but not rodent amylin, showed amylin deposits in the myocardium. Cardiac amylin level was larger in males compared to females. Sarcolemmal Ca2+ leak and Ca2+ transients were increased in myocytes isolated from males infused with human amylin while no significant changes occurred in either females injected with human amylin or in rat amylin-infused mice. In isolated cardiac myocytes, the amylin receptor antagonist AC-187 did not effectively block the interaction of amylin with the sarcolemma. In conclusion, circulating aggregated amylin accumulates preferentially in male vs. female hearts and its effects on myocyte Ca2+ cycling do not require diabetic remodeling of the myocardium