14 research outputs found

    Copycat CNN: Stealing Knowledge by Persuading Confession with Random Non-Labeled Data

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    In the past few years, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been achieving state-of-the-art performance on a variety of problems. Many companies employ resources and money to generate these models and provide them as an API, therefore it is in their best interest to protect them, i.e., to avoid that someone else copies them. Recent studies revealed that state-of-the-art CNNs are vulnerable to adversarial examples attacks, and this weakness indicates that CNNs do not need to operate in the problem domain (PD). Therefore, we hypothesize that they also do not need to be trained with examples of the PD in order to operate in it. Given these facts, in this paper, we investigate if a target black-box CNN can be copied by persuading it to confess its knowledge through random non-labeled data. The copy is two-fold: i) the target network is queried with random data and its predictions are used to create a fake dataset with the knowledge of the network; and ii) a copycat network is trained with the fake dataset and should be able to achieve similar performance as the target network. This hypothesis was evaluated locally in three problems (facial expression, object, and crosswalk classification) and against a cloud-based API. In the copy attacks, images from both non-problem domain and PD were used. All copycat networks achieved at least 93.7% of the performance of the original models with non-problem domain data, and at least 98.6% using additional data from the PD. Additionally, the copycat CNN successfully copied at least 97.3% of the performance of the Microsoft Azure Emotion API. Our results show that it is possible to create a copycat CNN by simply querying a target network as black-box with random non-labeled data.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, accepted by IJCNN 201

    Cross-Domain Car Detection Using Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation: From Day to Night

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    Deep learning techniques have enabled the emergence of state-of-the-art models to address object detection tasks. However, these techniques are data-driven, delegating the accuracy to the training dataset which must resemble the images in the target task. The acquisition of a dataset involves annotating images, an arduous and expensive process, generally requiring time and manual effort. Thus, a challenging scenario arises when the target domain of application has no annotated dataset available, making tasks in such situation to lean on a training dataset of a different domain. Sharing this issue, object detection is a vital task for autonomous vehicles where the large amount of driving scenarios yields several domains of application requiring annotated data for the training process. In this work, a method for training a car detection system with annotated data from a source domain (day images) without requiring the image annotations of the target domain (night images) is presented. For that, a model based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) is explored to enable the generation of an artificial dataset with its respective annotations. The artificial dataset (fake dataset) is created translating images from day-time domain to night-time domain. The fake dataset, which comprises annotated images of only the target domain (night images), is then used to train the car detector model. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieved significant and consistent improvements, including the increasing by more than 10% of the detection performance when compared to the training with only the available annotated data (i.e., day images).Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures, https://github.com/viniciusarruda/cross-domain-car-detection and accepted at IJCNN 201

    Effortless Deep Training for Traffic Sign Detection Using Templates and Arbitrary Natural Images

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    Deep learning has been successfully applied to several problems related to autonomous driving. Often, these solutions rely on large networks that require databases of real image samples of the problem (i.e., real world) for proper training. The acquisition of such real-world data sets is not always possible in the autonomous driving context, and sometimes their annotation is not feasible (e.g., takes too long or is too expensive). Moreover, in many tasks, there is an intrinsic data imbalance that most learning-based methods struggle to cope with. It turns out that traffic sign detection is a problem in which these three issues are seen altogether. In this work, we propose a novel database generation method that requires only (i) arbitrary natural images, i.e., requires no real image from the domain of interest, and (ii) templates of the traffic signs, i.e., templates synthetically created to illustrate the appearance of the category of a traffic sign. The effortlessly generated training database is shown to be effective for the training of a deep detector (such as Faster R-CNN) on German traffic signs, achieving 95.66% of mAP on average. In addition, the proposed method is able to detect traffic signs with an average precision, recall and F1-score of about 94%, 91% and 93%, respectively. The experiments surprisingly show that detectors can be trained with simple data generation methods and without problem domain data for the background, which is in the opposite direction of the common sense for deep learning
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