390 research outputs found

    Infrared Observation of Hot Cores

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    We report on mid-infrared imaging of hot cores performed with SpectroCam-10 and TIMMI2. The observations aimed at the detection of thermal emission presumably associated with the hot cores. Mid-infrared flux measurements are required to improve the luminosity and optical depth estimates for these sources. Results are presented for W3(H2_2O), G9.62+0.19, G10.47+0.03, and the possible hot core candidate G232.620+0.996. They illustrate that the morphology of these sources cannot be described by simple geometries. Therefore, line-of-sight effects and considerable extinction even at mid-infrared wavelengths must not be neglected.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, Conference proceeding "Origins of stars and planets: The VLT view", ESO, Garching, April 24-27 200

    Microbial ligand costimulation drives neutrophilic steroid-refractory asthma

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    Funding: The authors thank the Wellcome Trust (102705) and the Universities of Aberdeen and Cape Town for funding. This research was also supported, in part, by National Institutes of Health GM53522 and GM083016 to DLW. KF and BNL are funded by the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, BNL is the recipient of an European Research Commission consolidator grant and participates in the European Union FP7 programs EUBIOPRED and MedALL. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Timing Is Critical for Effective Glucocorticoid Receptor Mediated Repression of the cAMP-Induced CRH Gene

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    Glucocorticoid negative feedback of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is mediated in part by direct repression of gene transcription in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expressing cells. We have investigated the cross talk between the two main signaling pathways involved in activation and repression of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression: cyclic AMP (cAMP) and GR. We report that in the At-T20 cell-line the glucocorticoid-mediated repression of the cAMP-induced human CRH proximal promoter activity depends on the relative timing of activation of both signaling pathways. Activation of the GR prior to or in conjunction with cAMP signaling results in an effective repression of the cAMP-induced transcription of the CRH gene. In contrast, activation of the GR 10 minutes after onset of cAMP treatment, results in a significant loss of GR-mediated repression. In addition, translocation of ligand-activated GR to the nucleus was found as early as 10 minutes after glucocorticoid treatment. Interestingly, while both signaling cascades counteract each other on the CRH proximal promoter, they synergize on a synthetic promoter containing ‚Äėpositive‚Äô response elements. Since the order of activation of both signaling pathways may vary considerably in vivo, we conclude that a critical time-window exists for effective repression of the CRH gene by glucocorticoids

    Microvascular engineering in perfusion culture: immunohistochemistry and CLSM findings

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    BACKGROUND: One of the most challenging problems in tissue engineering is the establishment of vascular supply. A possible approach might be the engineering of microvasculature in vitro and the supply by engineered feeder vessels. METHODS: An in vitro model for a small-diameter vessel was developed and made from adipose tissue stromal cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a tube-like gelatine scaffold. The number of "branches" emerging from the central lumen and the morphology of the central lumen of the vessel equivalent were assessed after 16 days of either pulsatile perfusion culture or culture in rotating containers by evaluation of immunohistochemically stained sections (n = 6 pairs of cultures). Intramural capillary network formation was demonstrated in five experiments with confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Perfused specimens showed a round or oval lumen lined by a single layer of endothelial cells, whereas following rotation culture the lumen tended to collapse. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed more extended network formation in perfused specimens as compared to specimens after rotation culture. Partially highly interconected capillary-like networks were imaged which showed orientation around the central lumen. Perfused specimens exhibited significantly more branches emerging from the central lumen. There were, however, hardly any capillary branches crossing the whole vessel wall. CONCLUSION: Pulsatile perfusion supports the development of vascular networks with physiological appearance. Advances in reactor development, acquisition of functional data and imaging procedures are however necessary in order to attain the ultimate goal of a fully functional engineered supplying vessel

    Genetic variation in Fcő≥ receptor IIa and risk of coronary heart disease: negative results from two large independent populations

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    Background The role of the Fcgamma receptor IIa (FcgammaRIIa), a receptor for C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute phase protein, in atherosclerosis is not yet clear. We sought to investigate the association of FcgammaRIIa genotype with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in two large population-based samples. Methods FcgammaRIIa-R/H131 polymorphisms were determined in a population of 527 patients with a history of myocardial infarction and 527 age and gender matched controls drawn from a population-based MONICA- Augsburg survey. In the LURIC population, 2227 patients with angiographically proven CHD, defined as having at least one stenosis [greater than or equal to]50%, were compared with 1032 individuals with stenosis H genotype was not independently associated with lower risk of CHD after multivariable adjustments, neither in the MONICA population (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.44), nor in LURIC (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.14). Conclusion Our results do not confirm an independent relationship between FcgammaRIIa genotypes and risk of CHD in these populations

    The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization

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    Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits. Conclusions: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation

    The role of dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the clinical management of patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease

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    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated the consistently high diagnostic and prognostic value of dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR). The value of DCMR for clinical decision making still needs to be defined. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the utility of DCMR regarding clinical management of patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease (CAD) in a routine setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively performed a standard DCMR examination in 1532 consecutive patients with suspected and known CAD. Patients were stratified according to the results of DCMR: DCMR-positive patients were recommended to undergo invasive coronary angiography and DCMR-negative patients received optimal medical treatment. Of 609 (40%) DCMR-positive patients coronary angiography was performed in 478 (78%) within 90 days. In 409 of these patients significant coronary stenoses ‚Č• 50% were present (positive predictive value 86%). Of 923 (60%) DCMR-negative patients 833 (90%) received optimal medical therapy. During a mean follow-up period of 2.1 ¬Ī 0.8 years (median: 2.1 years, interquartile range 1.5 to 2.7 years) 8 DCMR-negative patients (0.96%) sustained a cardiac event.In 131 DCMR-positive patients who did not undergo invasive angiography, 20 patients (15%) suffered cardiac events. In 90 DCMR-negative patients (10%) invasive angiography was performed within 2 years (range 0.01 to 2.0 years) with 56 patients having coronary stenoses ‚Č• 50%. CONCLUSION: In a routine setting DCMR proved a useful arbiter for clinical decision making and exhibited high utility for stratification and clinical management of patients with suspected and known CAD

    Measurement of the inclusive and dijet cross-sections of b-jets in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    The inclusive and dijet production cross-sections have been measured for jets containing b-hadrons (b-jets) in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements use data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 34 pb^-1. The b-jets are identified using either a lifetime-based method, where secondary decay vertices of b-hadrons in jets are reconstructed using information from the tracking detectors, or a muon-based method where the presence of a muon is used to identify semileptonic decays of b-hadrons inside jets. The inclusive b-jet cross-section is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 20 < pT < 400 GeV and rapidity in the range |y| < 2.1. The bbbar-dijet cross-section is measured as a function of the dijet invariant mass in the range 110 < m_jj < 760 GeV, the azimuthal angle difference between the two jets and the angular variable chi in two dijet mass regions. The results are compared with next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. Good agreement is observed between the measured cross-sections and the predictions obtained using POWHEG + Pythia. MC@NLO + Herwig shows good agreement with the measured bbbar-dijet cross-section. However, it does not reproduce the measured inclusive cross-section well, particularly for central b-jets with large transverse momenta.Comment: 10 pages plus author list (21 pages total), 8 figures, 1 table, final version published in European Physical Journal

    Observation of associated near-side and away-side long-range correlations in ‚ąösNN=5.02‚ÄČ‚ÄČTeV proton-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector