113 research outputs found

    Stringent requirement for HRD1, SEL1L, and OS-9/XTP3-B for disposal of ERAD-LS substrates

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    Soluble ERAD substrates require the Hrd1 E3 ligase for degradation compared with membrane-anchored peptides that use GP78

    Malectin Participates in a Backup Glycoprotein Quality Control Pathway in the Mammalian ER

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    Malectin is a conserved, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident lectin that recognizes high mannose oligosaccharides displaying terminal glucose residues. Here we show that Malectin is an ER stress-induced protein that selectively associates with glycopolypeptides without affecting their entry and their retention in the Calnexin chaperone system. Analysis of the obligate Calnexin client influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) revealed that Calnexin and Malectin associated with different timing to different HA conformers and that Malectin associated with misfolded HA. Analysis of the facultative Calnexin clients NHK and α1-antitrypsin (α1AT) revealed that induction of Malectin expression to simulate conditions of ER stress resulted in persistent association between the ER lectin and the model cargo glycoproteins, interfered with processing of cargo-linked oligosaccharides and reduced cargo secretion. We propose that Malectin intervention is activated upon ER stress to inhibit secretion of defective gene products that might be generated under conditions of aberrant functioning of the ER quality control machinery

    How viruses hijack the ERAD tuning machinery

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    An essential step during the intracellular life cycle of many positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of host cell membranes to generate membrane-bound replication platforms. For example, Nidovirales and Flaviviridae subvert the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for their replication. However, the absence of conventional ER and secretory pathway markers in virus-induced ER-derived membranes has for a long time hampered a thorough understanding of their biogenesis. Recent reports highlight the analogies between mouse hepatitis virus-, equine arteritis virus-, and Japanese encephalitis virus-induced replication platforms and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) tuning vesicles (or EDEMosomes) that display nonlipidated LC3 at their cytosolic face and segregate the ERAD factors EDEM1, OS-9, and SEL1L from the ER lumen. In this Gem, we briefly summarize the current knowledge on ERAD tuning pathways and how they might be hijacked for viral genome replication. As ERAD tuning components, such as SEL1L and nonlipidated LC3, appear to contribute to viral infection, these cellular pathways represent novel candidate drug targets to combat positive-strand RNA viruses

    Cyclosporine A-Sensitive, Cyclophilin B-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation

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    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIs) catalyze cis/trans isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline residues. The involvement of PPI family members in protein refolding has been established in test tube experiments. Surprisingly, however, no data is available on the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident members of the PPI family in protein folding, quality control or disposal in the living cell. Here we report that the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) selectively inhibits the degradation of a subset of misfolded proteins generated in the ER. We identify cyclophilin B (CyPB) as the ER-resident target of CsA that catalytically enhances disposal from the ER of ERAD-LS substrates containing cis proline residues. Our manuscript presents the first evidence for enzymatic involvement of a PPI in protein quality control in the ER of living cells

    Stringent requirement for HRD1, SEL1L, and OS-9/XTP3-B for disposal of ERAD-LS substrates

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    Sophisticated quality control mechanisms prolong retention of protein-folding intermediates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) until maturation while sorting out terminally misfolded polypeptides for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The presence of structural lesions in the luminal, transmembrane, or cytosolic domains determines the classification of misfolded polypeptides as ERAD-L, -M, or -C substrates and results in selection of distinct degradation pathways. In this study, we show that disposal of soluble (nontransmembrane) polypeptides with luminal lesions (ERAD-LS substrates) is strictly dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, the associated cargo receptor SEL1L, and two interchangeable ERAD lectins, OS-9 and XTP3-B. These ERAD factors become dispensable for degradation of the same polypeptides when membrane tethered (ERAD-LM substrates). Our data reveal that, in contrast to budding yeast, tethering of mammalian ERAD-L substrates to the membrane changes selection of the degradation pathway

    Malectin participates in a backup glycoprotein quality control pathway in the mammalian ER

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    Malectin is a conserved, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident lectin that recognizes high mannose oligosaccharides displaying terminal glucose residues. Here we show that Malectin is an ER stress-induced protein that selectively associates with glycopolypeptides without affecting their entry and their retention in the Calnexin chaperone system. Analysis of the obligate Calnexin client influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) revealed that Calnexin and Malectin associated with different timing to different HA conformers and that Malectin associated withmisfolded HA. Analysis of the facultative Calnexin clients NHK and a1-antitrypsin (a1AT) revealed that induction of Malectin expression to simulate conditions of ER stress resulted in persistent association between the ER lectin and themodel cargo glycoproteins, interfered with processing of cargo- linked oligosaccharides and reduced cargo secretion. We propose that Malectin intervention is activated upon ER stress to inhibit secretion of defective gene products that might be generated under conditions of aberrant functioning of the ER quality control machinery

    Cyclosporine A-sensitive, cyclophilin B-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    Get PDF
    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIs) catalyze cis/trans isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline residues. The involvement of PPI family members in protein refolding has been established in test tube experiments. Surprisingly, however, no data is available on the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident members of the PPI family in protein folding, quality control or disposal in the living cell. Here we report that the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) selectively inhibits the degradation of a subset of misfolded proteins generated in the ER. We identify cyclophilin B (CyPB) as the ER-resident target of CsA that catalytically enhances disposal from the ER of ERAD-LS substrates containing cis proline residues. Our manuscript presents the first evidence for enzymatic involvement of a PPI in protein quality control in the ER of living cells
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