5,909 research outputs found

    On the Consensus Threshold for the Opinion Dynamics of Krause-Hegselmann

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    In the consensus model of Krause-Hegselmann, opinions are real numbers between 0 and 1 and two agents are compatible if the difference of their opinions is smaller than the confidence bound parameter \epsilon. A randomly chosen agent takes the average of the opinions of all neighbouring agents which are compatible with it. We propose a conjecture, based on numerical evidence, on the value of the consensus threshold \epsilon_c of this model. We claim that \epsilon_c can take only two possible values, depending on the behaviour of the average degree d of the graph representing the social relationships, when the population N goes to infinity: if d diverges when N goes to infinity, \epsilon_c equals the consensus threshold \epsilon_i ~ 0.2 on the complete graph; if instead d stays finite when N goes to infinity, \epsilon_c=1/2 as for the model of Deffuant et al.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figures, to appear in International Journal of Modern Physics C 16, issue 2 (2005

    Classism and dehumanization in chronic pain: a qualitative study of nurses inferences about women of different socio-economic status

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    Objectives: Class-based dehumanization in health is poorly investigated. Beliefs about social class are often shared across cultures, with people of lower socio-economic status (SES) being typically dehumanized. This study specifically examined how nurses‚Äô perceptions of pain patients‚Äô SES were associated with (more or less) dehumanizing inferences about their pain and different treatment recommendations. Design: Sequential mixed methods including Similitude Analysis (statistical analysis of qualitative data) and a Thematic Analysis. Fifty female nurses watched short videos of two white women of different SES (low vs. middle) and similar levels of pain behaviours. Afterwards, nurses were asked to complete (1) a Free Association Task (associating characteristics and a profession to the women) and (2) a Story-Completion Task (writing a story describing women's lives, pain, and recommending treatments). Data were analysed with Similitude and Thematic Analysis. Results: The women's SES was recognized, linked to distinct professions, and associated with distinct inferences. The middle-SES woman was depicted with both Uniquely Human (e.g., autonomous) and Human Nature (e.g., communicative) traits, positive future prospects, and competence to self-manage pain. The low-SES woman was associated with Human Nature traits (hard-working) but denied Uniquely Human traits associated with competence; she was imagined as passive towards pain, with poor future prospects and referred to psychoeducation. Conclusion: Findings reveal the role of class-based cultural belief systems in pain care, showing how nurses‚Äô recognition of low SES is associated with dehumanizing inferences and recommendations, which may contribute to reproducing pain care disparities. Theoretical implications of these findings for social and health psychology are drawn. Statement of contribution What is already known on the subject? ‚ÄĘ Psychosocial research on health and pain care disparities has paid more attention to the role of race/racism and gender/sexism than the role of social class/classism; Belief systems about social class are shared across cultures; people from lower SES are often dehumanized by being denied competence, civility, and self-determination; Class-based dehumanization may influence the relational and technical aspects of clinical encounters but little is still known about these processes. What does this study add? Drawing upon a mixed-methods approach, this study provides novel findings on class-based dehumanization inferences made by female nurses on female chronic pain patients; Nurses perceived the lower SES patient with fewer Uniquely Human traits, that is, less competent, with more pain-related disability, and recommended her more psychoeducation. Class-based dehumanization processes may contribute to reproducing pain care disparities and may prove to be important targets for intervention development.info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

    Surviving opinions in Sznajd models on complex networks

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    The Sznajd model has been largely applied to simulate many sociophysical phenomena. In this paper we applied the Sznajd model with more than two opinions on three different network topologies and observed the evolution of surviving opinions after many interactions among the nodes. As result, we obtained a scaling law which depends of the network size and the number of possible opinions. We also observed that this scaling law is not the same for all network topologies, being quite similar between scale-free networks and Sznajd networks but different for random networks.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    A simple intra-operative maneuver to decrease a duodenal ulcer hemorrhage temporarily: description and anatomical bases

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    Intraoperative hemostatic suture to treat a bleeding duodenal ulcer is sometimes difficult when there is massive hemorrhage. The aims of this paper are: (1) to describe a practical and easy intraoperative procedure which quickly decreases a massively bleeding duodenal ulcer, allowing the surgeon to identify the bleeding site clearly and obtain definitive hemostasis by suturing the involved vessels with a low risk of common bile duct lesion; and (2) to study in cadavers the anatomical basis of this surgical procedure already successfully performed on patients. Fourteen patients with massive duodenal ulcer bleeding, after unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis, were operated on and included in this study. After surgical anterior gastroduodenotomy, the surgeon introduced a finger in a downward and forward direction in the bursa omentalis vestibule through the omental foramen. This simple and quick procedure decreased hemorrhage by compressing the gastroduodenal artery against the first part of the posterior surface of the duodenum. Twenty-four fresh blocks of normal tissue were removed from cadavers and were injected with silicone rubber through the common hepatic artery. The distance between the gastroduodenal artery and the omental foramen was measured. With this maneuver the surgeon can clearly see the exact bleeding site and perform an adequate suture with a minor risk of common bile duct lesion

    Nanomanipulação de superfície polimérica: nanolitografia.

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    Bioestimulante no feijoeiro cultivado em sucessão à diferentes culturas de cobertura.

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    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de regulador de crescimento visando maior produtividade do feijoeiro irrigado em sucessão à diferentes culturas de cobertura

    Vascular liver anatomy and main variants: what the radiologist must know

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    Advances in surgical techniques are extremely demanding regarding the accuracy and level of detail expected for display of the vascular anatomy of the liver. Precise knowledge of the arterial, portal and hepatic vein territories are mandatory whenever a liver intervention is planned. Sectional anatomy can now be routinely performed on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with volumetric data and isotropic voxel display, by means of sub-millimetric slice thickness acquisition. The relevant vascular information can thus be gathered, reviewed and post-processed with unprecedented clarity, obviating the need for digital subtraction angiography. The scope of the present paper is to review the normal vascular liver anatomy, its most relevant variants including additional sources of vascular inflow. Apart from providing the surgeon with a detailed vascular and parenchymal roadmap knowledge of imaging findings may avoid potential confusion with pathologic processes

    Controle biológico de fungos e uso de bioestimulante no feijoeiro cultivado em sucessão de diferentes culturas.

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    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de bioestimulante e o controle biológico de fungos do solo por meio de Trichoderma sp., visando maior produtividade do feijoeiro irrigado em sucessão à diferentes culturas de cobertura
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