108 research outputs found

    The Charcot foot: a pictorial review.

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    Charcot foot refers to an inflammatory pedal disease based on polyneuropathy; the detailed pathomechanism of the disease is still unclear. Since the most common cause of polyneuropathy in industrialized countries is diabetes mellitus, the prevalence in this risk group is very high, up to 35%. Patients with Charcot foot typically present in their fifties or sixties and most of them have had diabetes mellitus for at least 10 years. If left untreated, the disease leads to massive foot deformation. This review discusses the typical course of Charcot foot disease including radiographic and MR imaging findings for diagnosis, treatment, and detection of complications

    Ulcer occurrence on adjacent toes and hallux valgus deformity after amputation of the second toe in diabetic patients

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    BACKGROUND Amputation of the second toe is associated with destabilization of the first toe. Possible consequences are hallux valgus deformity and subsequent pressure ulcers on the lateral side of the first or on the medial side of the third toe. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and possible influencing factors of interdigital ulcer development and hallux valgus deformity after second toe amputation. METHODS Twenty-four cases of amputation of the second toe between 2004 and 2020 (mean age 68 ± 12 years; 79% males) were included with a mean follow-up of 36 ± 15 months. Ulcer development on the first, third, or fourth toe after amputation, the body mass index (BMI) and the amputation level (toe exarticulation versus transmetatarsal amputation) were recorded. Pre- and postoperative foot radiographs were evaluated for the shape of the first metatarsal head (round, flat, chevron-type), the hallux valgus angle, the first-second intermetatarsal angle, the distal metatarsal articular angle and the hallux valgus interphalangeal angle by two orthopedic surgeons for interobserver reliability. RESULTS After amputation of the second toe, the interdigital ulcer rate on the adjacent toes was 50% and the postoperative hallux valgus rate was 71%. Neither the presence of hallux valgus deformity itself (r = .19, p = .37), nor the BMI (r = .09, p = .68), the shape of the first metatarsal head (r = - .09, p = .67), or the amputation level (r = .09, p = .69) was significantly correlated with ulcer development. The interobserver reliability of radiographic measurements was high, oscillating between 0.978 (p = .01) and 0.999 (p = .01). CONCLUSIONS The interdigital ulcer rate on the first or third toe after second toe amputation was 50% and hallux valgus development was high. To date, evidence on influencing factors is lacking and this study could not identify parameters such as the BMI, the shape of the first metatarsal head or the amputation level as risk factors for the development of either hallux valgus deformity or ulcer occurrence after second toe amputation. TRIAL REGISTRATION BASEC-Nr. 2019-01791

    Initial antibiotic therapy for postoperative moderate or severe diabetic foot infections: Broad versus narrow spectrum, empirical versus targeted

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    AIM To retrospectively evaluate clinical and microbiological outcomes after combined surgical and medical therapy for diabetic foot infections (DFIs), stratifying between the empirical versus the targeted nature, and between an empirical broad versus a narrow-spectrum, antibiotic therapy. METHODS We retrospectively assessed the rate of ultimate therapeutic failures for each of three types of initial postoperative antibiotic therapy: adequate empirical therapy; culture-guided therapy; and empirical inadequate therapy with a switch to targeted treatment based on available microbiological results. RESULTS We included data from 332 patients who underwent 716 DFI episodes of surgical debridement, including partial amputations. Clinical failure occurred in 40 of 194 (20.6%) episodes where adequate empirical therapy was given, in 77 of 291 (26.5%) episodes using culture-guided (and correct) therapy from the start, and in 73 of 231 (31.6%) episodes with switching from empirical inadequate therapy to culture-targeted therapy. Equally, a broad-spectrum antibiotic choice could not alter this failure risk. Group comparisons, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses failed to show either statistical superiority or inferiority of any of the initial antibiotic strategies. CONCLUSIONS In this study, the microbiological adequacy of the initial antibiotic regimen after (surgical) debridement for DFI did not alter therapeutic outcomes. We recommend that clinicians follow the stewardship approach of avoiding antibiotic de-escalation and start with a narrow-spectrum regimen based on the local epidemiology

    Nutritional Interventions May Improve Outcomes of Patients Operated on for Diabetic Foot Infections: A Single-Center Case-Control Study

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    Aim While a patient's nutritional status is known to generally have a role in postoperative wound healing, there is little information on its role as therapy in the multifaceted problem of diabetic foot infections (DFIs). Methods We assessed this issue by conducting a retrospective case-control cohort study using a multivariate Cox regression model. The nutrition status of the DFI patients was assessed by professional nutritionists, who also orchestrated the nutritional intervention (counselling, composition of the intrahospital food) during hospitalization. Results Among 1,013 DFI episodes in 586 patients (median age 67 years; 882 with osteomyelitis), 191 (19%) received a professional assessment of their nutrition accompanied by between 1 and 6 nutritional interventions. DFI cases who had professional nutritionists' interventions had a significantly shorter hospital stay, had shorter antibiotic therapies, and tended to fewer surgical debridements. By multivariate analysis, episodes with low Nutritional Risk Status- (NRS-) Scores 1-3 were associated with significantly lower failure rates after therapy for DFI (Cox regression analysis; hazard ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1-0.7). Conclusions In this retrospective cohort study, DFI episodes with low NRS-Score were associated with lower rates of clinical failure after DFI treatment, while nutritional interventions improved the outcome of DFI. We need prospective interventional trials for this treatment, and these are underway

    Correction of hyperglycemia after surgery for diabetic foot infection and its association with clinical outcomes

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    Objective: Constantly high glycemia levels might influence outcomes in the management of patients undergoing surgery for diabetic foot infections (DFI). In our center for DFI, we performed a case-control study using a multivariate Cox regression model. Patients developing a new DFI could participate in the study several times. Results: Among 1013 different DFI episodes in 586 individual adult patients (type I diabetes 148 episodes [15%], 882 [87%] with osteomyelitis; median antibiotic therapy of 21 days), professional diabetes counselling was provided by a specialized diabetes nurse in 195 episodes (19%). At admission, blood glucose levels were elevated in 110 episodes (11%). Treatments normalized glycemia on postoperative day 3 in 353 episodes (35%) and on day 7 for 321 (32%) episodes. Glycemia levels entirely normalized for 367 episodes (36%) until the end of hospitalization. Overall, treatment of DFI episodes failed in 255 of 1013 cases (25%), requiring surgical revision. By multivariate analysis, neither the provision of diabetes counseling, nor attaining normalizations of daily glycemic levels at day 3, day 7, or overall, influenced the ultimate incidence of clinical failures. Thus, the rapidity or success of achieving normoglycemia do not appear to influence the risk of treatment failure for operated DFI episodes. Keywords: Diabetic foot infections; Glycemia; Insulin therapy; Outcomes; Surger

    Why Are Outcomes Different for Registry Patients Enrolled Prospectively and Retrospectively? Insights from the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF).

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    Background: Retrospective and prospective observational studies are designed to reflect real-world evidence on clinical practice, but can yield conflicting results. The GARFIELD-AF Registry includes both methods of enrolment and allows analysis of differences in patient characteristics and outcomes that may result. Methods and Results: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and ≥1 risk factor for stroke at diagnosis of AF were recruited either retrospectively (n = 5069) or prospectively (n = 5501) from 19 countries and then followed prospectively. The retrospectively enrolled cohort comprised patients with established AF (for a least 6, and up to 24 months before enrolment), who were identified retrospectively (and baseline and partial follow-up data were collected from the emedical records) and then followed prospectively between 0-18 months (such that the total time of follow-up was 24 months; data collection Dec-2009 and Oct-2010). In the prospectively enrolled cohort, patients with newly diagnosed AF (≤6 weeks after diagnosis) were recruited between Mar-2010 and Oct-2011 and were followed for 24 months after enrolment. Differences between the cohorts were observed in clinical characteristics, including type of AF, stroke prevention strategies, and event rates. More patients in the retrospectively identified cohort received vitamin K antagonists (62.1% vs. 53.2%) and fewer received non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (1.8% vs . 4.2%). All-cause mortality rates per 100 person-years during the prospective follow-up (starting the first study visit up to 1 year) were significantly lower in the retrospective than prospectively identified cohort (3.04 [95% CI 2.51 to 3.67] vs . 4.05 [95% CI 3.53 to 4.63]; p = 0.016). Conclusions: Interpretations of data from registries that aim to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with AF must take account of differences in registry design and the impact of recall bias and survivorship bias that is incurred with retrospective enrolment. Clinical Trial Registration: - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier for GARFIELD-AF (NCT01090362)

    Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease