1,912 research outputs found

### Generalized Newton-Cartan geometries for particles and strings

We discuss the generalized Newton-Cartan geometries that can serve as gravitational background fields for particles and strings. In order to enable us to define affine connections that are invariant under all the symmetries of the structure group, we describe torsionful geometries with independent torsion tensors. A characteristic feature of the non-Lorentzian geometries we consider is that some of the torsion tensors are so-called â€˜intrinsic torsionâ€™ tensors. Setting some components of these intrinsic torsion tensors to zero leads to constraints on the geometry. For both particles and strings, we discuss various such constraints that can be imposed consistently with the structure group symmetries. In this way, we reproduce several results in the literature.</p

### New horizons for fundamental physics with LISA

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas

### Evaluation Criteria for Chromosome Instability Detection by FISH to Predict Malignant Progression in Premalignant Glottic Laryngeal Lesions

Contains fulltext :
252248.pdf (Publisherâ€™s version ) (Open Access

### New horizons for fundamental physics with LISA

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of GWs can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas

### Evaluation Criteria for Chromosome Instability Detection by FISH to Predict Malignant Progression in Premalignant Glottic Laryngeal Lesions

BACKGROUND: The definition of objective, clinically applicable evaluation criteria for FISH 1c/7c in laryngeal precursor lesions for the detection of chromosome instability (CI). Copy Number Variations (CNV) for chromosomes 1 and 7 reflect the general ploidy status of premalignant head and neck lesions and can therefore be used as a marker for CI. METHODS: We performed dual-target FISH for chromosomes 1 and 7 centromeres on 4 Âµm formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 87 laryngeal premalignancies to detect CNVs. Thirty-five normal head and neck squamous cell samples were used as a control. First, the chromosome 7:1 ratio (CR) was evaluated per lesion. The normal range of CRs (â‰¥0.84 â‰¤ 1.16) was based on the mean CR +/- 3 x SD found in the normal population. Second, the percentage of aberrant nuclei, harboring > 2 chromosomes of chromosome 1 and/or 7 (PAN), was established (cut-off value for abnormal PAN â‰¥ 10%). RESULTS: PAN showed a stronger correlation with malignant progression than CR (resp. OR 5.6, p = 0.001 and OR 3.8, p = 0.009). PAN combined with histopathology resulted in a prognostic model with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 (s.e. 0.061, sensitivity 71%, specificity 70%). CONCLUSIONS: evaluation criteria for FISH 1c/7c based on PAN â‰¥ 10% provide the best prognostic information on the risk of malignant progression of premalignant laryngeal lesions as compared with criteria based on the CR. FISH 1c/7c detection can be applied in combination with histopathological assessment

### The supersymmetric Neveu-Schwarz branes of non-relativistic string theory

We construct the basic Neveu-Schwarz (NS) brane solutions of non-relativistic string theory using longitudinal T-duality as a solution generating technique. Extending the NS background fields to a supergravity multiplet, we verify that all solutions we find are half-supersymmetric. The two perturbative solutions we find both have an interpretation as the background geometry outside a string-like object. Correspondingly, we refer to these non-Lorentzian backgrounds as winding string and unwound string solution. Whereas the winding string is part of the on-shell spectrum of non-relativistic string theory, the unwound string only makes sense off-shell where it mediates the instantaneous gravitational force. Seen from the nine-dimensional point of view, we find that the winding string solution is sourced by a non-relativistic massive particle and that the unwound string solution is sourced by a massless Galilean particle of zero colour and spin. We explain how these two string solutions fit into a discrete lightcone quantization of string theory. We shortly discuss the basic NS five-brane and Kaluza-Klein monopole solutions and show that they are both half-supersymmetric

### Non-relativistic ten-dimensional minimal supergravity

We construct a non-relativistic limit of ten-dimensional N=1 supergravity
from the point of view of the symmetries, the action, and the equations of
motion. This limit can only be realized in a supersymmetric way provided we
impose by hand a set of geometric constraints, invariant under all the
symmetries of the non-relativistic theory, that define a so-called `self-dual'
Dilatation-invariant String Newton-Cartan geometry. The non-relativistic action
exhibits three emerging symmetries: one local scale symmetry and two local
conformal supersymmetries. Due to these emerging symmetries the Poisson
equation for the Newton potential and two partner fermionic equations do not
follow from a variation of the non-relativistic action but, instead, are
obtained by a supersymmetry variation of the other equations of motion that do
follow from a variation of the non-relativistic action. We shortly discuss the
inclusion of the Yang-Mills sector that would lead to a non-relativistic
heterotic supergravity action.Comment: 40 pages, minor change

### Limits of JT gravity

We construct various limits of JT gravity, including Newton-Cartan and
Carrollian versions of dilaton gravity in two dimensions as well as a theory on
the three-dimensional light cone. In the BF formulation our boundary conditions
relate boundary connection with boundary scalar, yielding as boundary action
the particle action on a group manifold or some Hamiltonian reduction thereof.
After recovering in our formulation the Schwarzian for JT, we show that
AdS-Carroll gravity yields a twisted warped boundary action. We comment on
numerous applications and generalizations.Comment: 41 pages, 3 figures, 1 table; v2: Matches published version +
Footnote 11; v3: Corrected typo in Carrollian/Galilean generalized dilaton
potentia

### Stringy cosmic strings in matter coupled

Abstract We extend the system of ungauged N = 2, d = 4 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets and hypermultiplets with 2-form potentials. The maximal number of 2-form potentials that one may introduce is equal to the number of isometries of either the special KÃ¤hler or quaternionic KÃ¤hler sigma model. We show that the local supersymmetry algebra can be realized on the 2-form potentials. These 2-forms couple electrically to strings which we refer to as stringy cosmic strings. The 1/2 BPS bosonic world-sheet actions for these strings are constructed and we discuss the properties of the 1/2 BPS stringy cosmic string solutions

### The different faces of branes in double field theory

Â© 2019, The Author(s). We show how the Wess-Zumino terms of the different branes in string theory can be embedded within double field theory. Crucial ingredients in our construction are the identification of the correct brane charge tensors and the use of the double field theory potentials that arise from dualizing the standard double field theory fields. This leads to a picture where under T-duality the brane does not change its worldvolume directions but where, instead, it shows different faces depending on whether some of the worldvolume and/or transverse directions invade the winding space. As a non-trivial by-product we show how the different Wess-Zumino terms are modified when the brane propagates in a background with a non-zero Romans mass parameter. Furthermore, we show that for non-zero mass parameter the brane creation process, when one brane passes through another brane, gets generalized to brane configurations that involve exotic branes as well

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