629 research outputs found

    Sustainable interaction with digital technologies : fostering pro-environmental behavior and maintaining mental health

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    One of the most essential challenges of the twenty-first century is to realize sustainability in everyday behavior. Daily, partly unconscious decisions influence environmental sustainability. Such everyday choices are increasingly shifted toward digital environments, as digital technologies are ubiquitous in a wide variety of everyday contexts. This yields the great potential to positively influence the users behavior toward more environmental sustainability when interacting with digital technologies, for example, through the use of digital nudging. But besides these benefits, research indicates that interacting with digital technologies can lead to a specific form of stress, also known as technostress, that can cause adverse health outcomes. Individuals increasingly suffer from or are at risk of mental health issues like depression or burnout. This demonstrates that it is essential to ensure a sustainable interaction with digital technologies that is both environmentally friendly and healthy, especially for the mind. Addressing individuals interaction with digital technologies requires a broad understanding from all perspectives. The Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI) framework represents a guiding structure for studying the interaction of humans with digital technologies. Along with the guiding structure of the HCI framework, the seven research articles included in this dissertation aim to contribute to sustainable interaction with digital technologies. The focus is on two outcomes resulting from the interaction: First, fostering pro-environmental behavior and, second, maintaining mental health. After an introductory first chapter, Chapter 2 focuses on the outcome of fostering pro-environmental behavior when interacting with digital technologies using digital nudging. Chapter 2.1 contributes to a deeper understanding of the effectiveness of DNEs in different behavioral contexts (HCI perspective context) that influence the individuals pro-environmental behavior (e.g., e-commerce shopping behavior). Chapters 2.2 and 2.3 zoom in on two of the behavioral contexts described in Chapter 2.1 to investigate and test the design and effectiveness of specific DNEs in an e-commerce shop and a smart home app (HCI perspective technology) through online experiments. While prior research concentrated on the effectiveness of different feedback nudge features (FNFs) (e.g., different update frequencies), Chapter 2.4 investigates the influence of 25 identified FNFs on user satisfaction in a smart home app through a card sorting approach followed by an online survey based on the Kano model (HCI perspective human). Chapter 3 puts focuses on the outcome of maintaining mental health when interacting with digital technologies, thus avoiding technostress. Chapter 3.1 concentrates on the role of the organization in preventing technostress among their employees (HCI perspective context). It introduces and characterizes 24 primary and secondary technostress prevention measures and determines the relevance of primary prevention measures in reducing different sources of technostress (technostress creators). Out of the 24 technostress prevention measures, two specific measures (adopt a stress-sensitive digital workplace design and use gamification) are addressed in Chapters 3.2 and 3.3. Through a large-scale online survey, Chapter 3.2 derives an understanding of the characteristic profiles of technologies used at the digital workplace, their interplay, and how they influence technostress (HCI perspective technology). Chapter 3.3 focuses on the individuals appraisal (HCI perspective human) of a demanding situation when interacting with digital technologies. After conducting an online experiment, Chapter 3.3 finds that the integration of gamification elements (e.g., points or levels) in digital technologies can reduce the individuals threat appraisal. Lastly, Chapter 4 discusses the results of the seven included research articles and provides an outlook for future research. In summary, this dissertation aims to provide research and practice with new insights into creating a sustainable interaction with digital technologies to foster pro-environmental behavior and maintain mental health.Die nachhaltige Gestaltung des Lebens eine der zentralen Herausforderung des einundzwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. AlltĂ€gliche, teils unterbewusste Entscheidungen haben Einfluss auf die ökologische Nachhaltigkeit. Diese Entscheidungen werden durch die AllgegenwĂ€rtigkeit digitaler Technologien zunehmend in digitalen Umgebungen getroffen. Dies birgt das Potenzial, die Entscheidungen und somit das Verhalten der Nutzer:innen bei der Interaktion mit digitalen Technologien, beispielsweise durch Digital Nudging, positiv in Richtung ökologischer Nachhaltigkeit zu beeinflussen. Doch neben diesen Vorteilen zeigt die Forschung, dass die Interaktion mit digitalen Technologien eine spezifische Form von Stress, bekannt unter dem Begriff Technostress, auslösen kann, die zu negativen gesundheitlichen Folgen fĂŒhren kann. Immer mehr Menschen leiden unter psychischen Krankheiten wie Depressionen oder Burnout oder sind akut gefĂ€hrdet, diese zu entwickeln. Das zeigt, dass eine nachhaltige Interaktion mit digitalen Technologien sowohl umweltfreundlich als auch gesund, insbesondere fĂŒr die Psyche, sein sollte. Das erfordert zunĂ€chst ein umfassendes VerstĂ€ndnis fĂŒr die Problematik und muss deshalb aus allen relevanten Perspektiven betrachtet werden. Das Human-Computer-Interaction (HCI) Framework stellt eine Struktur fĂŒr die Untersuchung der Interaktion von Menschen mit digitalen Technologien bereit. Das Framework stellt einen ganzheitlichen Ansatz zur Strukturierung und Klassifizierung der Forschung entlang der drei verschiedenen Perspektiven dar. Orientiert an dieser Struktur zielen die sieben Forschungsartikel dieser Dissertation darauf ab, einen Beitrag zur nachhaltigen Interaktion mit digitalen Technologien zu leisten. Dabei liegt der Fokus auf den beiden Ergebnissen der Förderung des umweltfreundlichen Verhaltens und der Aufrechterhaltung der psychischen Gesundheit. Nach dem einleitenden ersten Kapitel fokussiert Kapitel 2 die Förderung eines umweltfreundlichen Verhaltens bei der Interaktion mit digitalen Technologien durch die Verwendung von Digital Nudging. Durch eine strukturierte Literaturanalyse und der anschließenden Entwicklung eines Frameworks trĂ€gt Kapitel 2.1 zu einem tieferen VerstĂ€ndnis und einem Überblick der EffektivitĂ€t von DNEs in verschiedenen Verhaltenskontexten (HCI Perspektive Kontext), die umweltfreundliches Verhalten bestimmen (z.B. Einkaufsverhalten), bei. In den Kapiteln 2.2 und 2.3 werden zwei der in Kapitel 2.1 betrachteten Kontexte vertieft und sowohl das Design als auch die EffektivitĂ€t spezifischer DNEs in einem E-Commerce-Shop (Kapitel 2.2) und einer Smart Home App (Kapitel 2.3) in Online-Experimenten untersucht (HCI Perspektive Technologie). Kapitel 2.4 konzentriert sich das gut erforschte und wirksame DNE Feedback zur Förderung von energiesparendem Verhalten. WĂ€hrend sich bisherige Forschung auf die EffektivitĂ€t verschiedener Feedback Nudge Features (FNFs) konzentriert (z.B. unterschiedliche Aktualisierungsfrequenzen), wird in Kapitel 2.4 der Einfluss von 25 identifizierten FNFs auf die Nutzerzufriedenheit mit Hilfe eines Card Sortings und einer Online-Befragung basierend auf dem Kano Modell untersucht (HCI Perspektive Mensch). In Kapitel 3 liegt der Schwerpunkt auf dem Ziel der Aufrechterhaltung der psychischen Gesundheit und somit der Vermeidung von Technostress. Kapitel 3.1 konzentriert sich auf die Rolle der Organisation bei der PrĂ€vention von Technostress bei Mitarbeiter:innen (HCI Perspektive Kontext). Basierend auf einer Delphi-Studie werden 24 primĂ€re und sekundĂ€re Technostress-PrĂ€ventionsmaßnahmen vorgestellt und charakterisiert, sowie deren Relevanz zur Vermeidung von Technostress eingeschĂ€tzt. Von den 24 Maßnahmen werden zwei spezifische Maßnahmen (Gestaltung eines stresssensiblen digitalen Arbeitsplatzes" und Einsatz von Gamification) in Kapitel 3.2 und 3.3 behandelt. Kapitel 3.2 trĂ€gt durch eine groß angelegte Umfrage zu einem VerstĂ€ndnis fĂŒr die Charakteristika der am digitalen Arbeitsplatz eingesetzten Technologien und deren Einfluss auf Technostress bei (HCI Perspektive Technologie). Kapitel 3.3 konzentriert sich auf das Individuum und dessen Wahrnehmung einer potenziellen Technostress-Situation bei der Interaktion mit digitalen Technologien (HCI Perspektive Mensch). Durch ein Online-Experiment zeigt sich, dass die Integration von Gamification-Elementen in digitalen Technologien die bedrohende Wahrnehmung der gegebenen Situation des Einzelnen reduzieren kann. Zusammenfassend zielt diese Dissertation darauf ab, Forschung und Praxis mit neuen Erkenntnissen zu einer nachhaltigen Interaktion von Menschen mit digitalen Technologien zu bereichern, die sowohl umweltfreundliches Verhalten fördert als auch die psychische Gesundheit aufrechterhĂ€lt und somit zu den aktuellen NachhaltigkeitsbemĂŒhungen beitrĂ€gt

    Basale Stimulation bei Patienten im Wachkoma und Minimally Conscious State : BegrĂŒndung fĂŒr die DurchfĂŒhrung durch die Ergotherapie

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    Objective: Basal stimulation is a therapy concept used by occupational therapists for patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state, although the concept was invented for nursing care. The aim of this article is to assess to what extent basal stimulation is effective in patients in vegetative state or minimally conscious state. Furthermore should be reasoned why occupational therapists also use basal stimulation within their interventions. Method: A systematical literature research was performed to examine the effectiveness of basal stimulation. Caseworks were coded by use of the enablement skills from the Canadian model of client-centered enablement to establish the reasoning for the use of basal stimulation by occupational therapists. Results: A review which studies the efficacy of basal stimulation was included. The main statement of this review is, that no literature exists at this stage, which confirms the efficacy of basal stimulation in critically ill patients. Four Caseworks, which describe the approach with basal stimulation in patients in vegetative state or minimally conscious state, were coded. The codes show a tendency which enablement skills can be linked with basal stimulation most frequent. Conclusion: The effectiveness of basal stimulation in patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state is not confirmed by evidence. Further research in this field is highly recommended. This article presents a comprehensible reasoning for the use of basal stimulation by occupational therapists.Basale Stimulation wird bei Patienten im Wachkoma und Minimally Conscious State von Ergotherapeuten als Therapiekonzept genutzt, obschon es sich dabei um ein Konzept aus dem Bereich der Pflege handelt. Das Ziel der Arbeit besteht darin deutlich zu machen, inwiefern die basale Stimulation eine Wirkung bei Patienten im Wachkoma oder Minimally Conscious State zeigt. Zudem wird begrĂŒndet, weshalb die basale Stimulation auch von Ergotherapeuten angewendet werden sollte. Eine systematische Literaturrecherche wurde durchgefĂŒhrt, um die Wirksamkeit der basalen Stimulation zu untersuchen. Fallberichte wurden mithilfe der Enablement Skills aus dem Canadian Model of Client-Centered Enablement kodiert, um die BegrĂŒndung fĂŒr die ergotherapeutische Anwendung der basalen Stimulation herzuleiten. Ein Review zur Wirksamkeit der basalen Stimulation wurde inkludiert. Darin wird ausgesagt, dass die Wirksamkeit der basalen Stimulation zur Pflege kritisch Kranker von der vorliegenden Literatur zum gegenwĂ€rtigen Zeitpunkt nicht bestĂ€tigt wird. Vier Fallberichte zu der Arbeit mit basaler Stimulation bei Patienten im Wachkoma oder MCS wurden kodiert. Aus der Kodierung ergab sich eine Tendenz, welche Enablement Skills am hĂ€ufigsten mit basaler Stimulation in Verbindung gebracht werden können. Die Wirksamkeit der basalen Stimulation bei Patienten im Wachkoma und Minimally Conscious State ist nicht evidenzbasiert bestĂ€tigt. Weitere Forschung auf diesem Gebiet wird dringend empfohlen. Diese Arbeit liefert eine nachvollziehbare BegrĂŒndung fĂŒr die ergotherapeutische Anwendung der basalen Stimulation.Basal stimulation is a therapy concept used by occupational therapists for patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state, although the concept was invented for nursing care. The aim of this article is to assess to what extent basal stimulation is effective in patients in vegetative state or minimally conscious state. Furthermore should be reasoned why occupational therapists also use basal stimulation within their interventions. A systematical literature research was performed to examine the effectiveness of basal stimulation. Caseworks were coded by use of the enablement skills from the Canadian model of client-centered enablement to establish the reasoning for the use of basal stimulation by occupational therapists. A review which studies the efficacy of basal stimulation was included. The main statement of this review is, that no literature exists at this stage, which confirms the efficacy of basal stimulation in critically ill patients. Four Caseworks, which describe the approach with basal stimulation in patients in vegetative state or minimally conscious state, were coded. The codes show a tendency which enablement skills can be linked with basal stimulation most frequent. The effectiveness of basal stimulation in patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state is not confirmed by evidence. Further research in this field is highly recommended. This article presents a comprehensible reasoning for the use of basal stimulation by occupational therapists

    Konkursprediksjon under finanskrisen : et empirisk studie av eksisterende og nye forklaringsvariabler knyttet til konkursprediksjonsmodellenes stabilitet, fĂžr og under finanskrisen 2008/2009

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    Hensikten med dette studiet er Ä undersÞke konkursprediksjonsmodellenes stabilitet fÞr og under finanskrisen 2008/2009, samt Ä avdekke om nye forklaringsvariabler kan ha pÄvirket selskapenes konkurssannsynlighet. Studiet baseres pÄ data fra ca. 60 000 selskaper, i perioden 1999-2007. Vi har tatt utgangspunkt i de mest sentrale bidragene innenfor konkursprediksjonslitteraturen, for deretter Ä utforme to konkursprediksjonsmodeller bestÄende av bÄde finansielle og ikke-finansielle nÞkkeltall. Analysens resultater viste at modellene endres i en resesjon. Hovedsakelig identifiserte vi endringer i koeffesientenes styrke, men endringer i signifikansnivÄ ble ogsÄ registrert. I tillegg til Ä bekrefte de tradisjonelle konkursprediksjonsmodellenes signifikans, identifiserte vi ogsÄ to nye forklaringsvariabler knyttet til konkursprediksjon; kunnskapsintensitet og HHI. Det er her verdt Ä nevne at signifikansnivÄet her var noe varierende

    Gamifying Digital Work: An Empirical Investigation how Gamification Affects IS Use Appraisal

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    Information systems (IS) and their healthy use are becoming increasingly important in the digital work environment. The cognitive appraisal of an IS-enabled demand is decisive for whether IS use leads to positive or negative outcomes. This work investigates how gamification integrated into IS can support challenge appraisal and reduce threat appraisal of IS-enabled demands. We conduct an online experiment to examine the impact of gamification on appraisal. We simulate time urgency in a gamified IS and examine how challenge and threat appraisal develop among participants during the experiment. We examine the panel data with a Latent Growth Model and find that gamified IS does not initially reduce threat appraisal but reduces it over time. Challenge appraisal is not significantly higher among users working in gamified IS. That this hypothesiszed effect does not show in the data might require further research. Our paper contributes to a better understanding of the cognitive appraisal process in IS use research and identifies gamification as a valuable tool to positively influence the cognitive appraisal process

    DIGITAL NUDGING TO PROMOTE ENERGY CONSERVATION BEHAVIOR – FRAMING AND DEFAULT RULES IN A SMART HOME APP

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    Increasingly, new energy-efficient technologies connected to smart home arise and bear great potential of influencing user\u27s decisions. Thereby, behavioral interventions like digital nudging are promising to influence behavior. While nudging has been investigated in several contexts to promote sustainable behavior, little is known about its effectiveness in digital choice environments promoting daily energy conservation behavior, especially through mobile applications. As private households account for a large share of total energy consumption, which needs to be reduced to counteract climate change, we conducted an online survey to test the nudging elements framing and default rules, as well as their combination. We surveyed 231 participants and found a large effect of framing and an even larger effect for the combination. This paper contributes by exploring these digital nudges, which received little attention in prior research, and by providing insights on the design of smart home applications to reduce energy consumption

    Promoting Energy-Conservation Behavior in a Smart Home App: Kano Analysis of User Satisfaction with Feedback Nudges

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    Smart home technologies and apps are on a rise. This allows to implement digital nudging elements to foster energy-conservation behavior and, thus, contribute to mitigating climate change. Digital nudging via feedback can be effective in improving energy-conservation behavior, as substantial prior research has shown. However, the investigation of users’ preferences concerning feedback nudges is missing. This lack of knowledge is crucial, as user satisfaction influences their continuous app usage, a precondition for achieving positive effects. To close this gap, we perform a structured literature review, categorize the feedback nudge features from extant research, and conduct an online survey. Based on survey data and the Kano model, we analyze the effect of feedback nudge features on user satisfaction. Our study complements the traditional focus on the effectiveness of these nudges with a perspective on user satisfaction. The combination of both perspectives suggests which feedback nudge features should be considered for implementation

    Preferred Gamification Elements in a Health Behavior Change Support System for Stress Management

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    Stress is a serious hazard to individuals. Health behavior change support systems (HBCSSs) may support individuals to modify their behaviors toward a healthy lifestyle. Previous studies have shown that HBCSSs for stress management can improve individual coping behavior but their success depends on the users’ adoption and long-term use. Gamification elements (GEs) can contribute to continuous use by motivating their users, enabling sustained healthy stress coping behavior. With a mixed-methods approach, we identified suitable GEs through six interviews with users of a mobile coping assistant prototype. Based on those insights, we designed GE mockups and surveyed 204 participants using the best-worst-scaling method to examine the users’ preferences. The results demonstrate that users mostly prefer feedback elements, such as scoreboards and progress bars in HBCSSs for stress management. Social interaction GEs score worst. Our interviews indicate that this could be due to privacy reasons

    Towards Designing a Mobile Stress Coping Assistant

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    Stress is a major public health concern and a severe threat to everyone. Facilitated by their powerful sensing capabilities, mobile devices may assist individuals in coping with stress. Building on existing studies and mobile apps supporting stress coping, we propose the design of a mobile coping assistant that uses multimodal sensor data to reduce its user’s stress. Based on sensor data, a mobile coping assistant (1) warns the user about elevated stress, (2) delivers a fundamental understanding of why they are currently stressed, (3) recommends targeted coping strategies to encourage and train effective coping behavior, and (4) executes automated actions to reduce stress exposure. The presented design comprises an architecture, good practices for designing the architectural components, and an algorithm for selecting adequate coping actions and recommendations. A prototypical instantiation indicates opportunities and challenges. Future research should evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of mobile coping assistants in the field

    How to prevent technostress at the digital workplace: a Delphi study

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    Technostress is a rising issue in the changing world of digital work. Technostress can cause severe adverse outcomes for individuals and organizations. Thus, organizations face the moral, legal, and economic responsibility to prevent employees’ excessive technostress. As technostress develops over time, it is crucial to prevent it throughout the process of its emergence instead of only reacting after adverse outcomes occur. Contextualizing the Theory of Preventive Stress management to technostress, we synthesize and advance existing knowledge on inhibiting technostress. We develop a set of 24 technostress prevention measures from technostress inhibitor literature, other technostress literature, and based on qualitative and quantitative contributions from a Delphi study. Based on expert feedback, we characterize each measure and, where possible, assess its relevance in addressing specific technostressors. Our paper contributes to research by transferring the Theory of Preventive Stress Management into the context of technostress and presenting specific measures to prevent technostress. This offers a complementary view to technostress inhibitors by expanding the theoretical grounding and adding a time perspective through the implementation of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention measures. For practice, we offer a comprehensive and applicable overview of measures organizations can implement to prevent technostress
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