194,342 research outputs found

    Influence Of Current Leads On Critical Current For Spin Precession In Magnetic Multilayers

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    In magnetic multilayers, a dc current induces a spin precession above a certain critical current. Drive torques responsible for this can be calculated from the spin accumulation Δμˉ\bar{\Delta\mu}. Existing calculations of Δμˉ\bar{\Delta\mu} assume a uniform cross section of conductors. But most multilayer samples are pillars with current leads flaring out immediately to a much wider cross-section area than that of the pillar itself. We write spin-diffusion equations of a form valid for variable cross section, and solve the case of flat electrodes with radial current distribution perpendicular to the axis of the pillar. Because of the increased volume available for conduction-electron spin relaxation in such leads, Δμˉ\bar{\Delta\mu} is reduced in the pillar by at least a factor of 2 below its value for uniform cross section, for given current density in the pillar. Also, Δμˉ\bar{\Delta\mu} and the critical current density for spin precession become nearly independent of the thickness of the pinned magnetic layer, and more dependent on the thickness of the spacer, in better agreement with measurements by Albert et al. (2002).Comment: To appear in J. Magn. Magn. Mate

    Light Bottom Squark Phenomenology

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    Agreement of theoretical calculations with the observed production rate of bottom quarks at hadron colliders is improved by the introduction of a contribution from pair-production of light gluinos, of mass 12 to 16 GeV, having two-body decays into bottom quarks and light bottom squarks with mass 2\simeq 2 to 5.5 GeV. Predictions are made for hadronic and radiative decays of the Upsilon states. In the limit of large tanβ\tan\beta, the dominant decay mode of the light scalar Higgs boson is into a pair of light bottom squarks that materialize as jets of hadrons.Comment: 3 pages, latex, no figures, uses espcrc2.sty style file. Paper to be published in the Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP02), Amsterdam, July 24 - 31, 200

    Why Solve the Hamiltonian Constraint in Numerical Relativity?

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    The indefinite sign of the Hamiltonian constraint means that solutions to Einstein's equations must achieve a delicate balance--often among numerically large terms that nearly cancel. If numerical errors cause a violation of the Hamiltonian constraint, the failure of the delicate balance could lead to qualitatively wrong behavior rather than just decreased accuracy. This issue is different from instabilities caused by constraint-violating modes. Examples of stable numerical simulations of collapsing cosmological spacetimes exhibiting local mixmaster dynamics with and without Hamiltonian constraint enforcement are presented.Comment: Submitted to a volume in honor of Michael P. Ryan, Jr. Based on talk given at GR1

    PBW-deformations of N-Koszul algebras

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    For a quotient algebra UU of the tensor algebra we give explicit conditions on its relations for UU being a PBW-deformation of an NN-Koszul algebra AA. We show there is a one-one correspondence between such deformations and a class of AA_\infty-structures on the Yoneda algebra ExtA(k,k)Ext_A^*(k,k) of AA. We compute the PBW-deformations of the algebra whose relations are the anti-symmetrizers of degree NN and also of cubic Artin-Schelter algebras.Comment: 35 pages. Some minor correction

    The ‘Trombone Shot’: From San Francisco to Middle Earth via Amity.

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    Jaws may have popularised the shot, but it was cameraman Irwin Roberts working on Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo who would introduce audiences to the conta-zoom, and with it bring drama and suspense hurtling toward us like never before