2,289 research outputs found

    Zoogeographic regionalisation of terrestrial vertebrates of Mozambique

    Get PDF
    DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT : Raw data and R code are available upon request from the Maputo Natural History Museum, Mozambique.During the formative years of science-based biodiversity conservation and planning, Mozambique was undergoing a prolonged post-colonial liberation struggle (1964–1974) and subsequent civil war (1976–1992), resulting in a profound gap in biodiversity knowledge and conservation planning relative to other countries in the region. This study represents Mozambique's first post-war (1992 to the present) zoogeographic regionalisation at a fine scale, using 20 years of terrestrial vertebrate data comprising 54 species and 27,199 records that cover 53% of the 0.5° grid cells of the country, with 35% of cells having sufficient data for subsequent quantitative analysis. Cluster and Indicator species (IndVal) analysis were used to delimit zooregions and to identify their characteristic species, respectively, while Redundancy analysis was used to relate environmental variables to vertebrate groups. These analyses divided Mozambique into six zooregions (Niassa, Tete, GilĂ©, Marromeu-Gorongosa, Limpopo-Zinave-Banhine and Maputo). Our study reveals that the zooregions identified are not adequately protected by the current network of protected areas. An expanded network of protected areas is needed to ensure biodiversity conservation in Mozambique.Eduardo Mondlane University through its Biological and Oceanographic Research Programme and Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA).http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/ajehj2024Mammal Research InstituteZoology and EntomologySDG-15:Life on lan

    Sensitivity of South American tropical forests to an extreme climate anomaly

    Get PDF
    The tropical forest carbon sink is known to be drought sensitive, but it is unclear which forests are the most vulnerable to extreme events. Forests with hotter and drier baseline conditions may be protected by prior adaptation, or more vulnerable because they operate closer to physiological limits. Here we report that forests in drier South American climates experienced the greatest impacts of the 2015–2016 El Niño, indicating greater vulnerability to extreme temperatures and drought. The long-term, ground-measured tree-by-tree responses of 123 forest plots across tropical South America show that the biomass carbon sink ceased during the event with carbon balance becoming indistinguishable from zero (−0.02 ± 0.37 Mg C ha−1 per year). However, intact tropical South American forests overall were no more sensitive to the extreme 2015–2016 El Niño than to previous less intense events, remaining a key defence against climate change as long as they are protected

    A Plastic Scintillation Muon Veto for Sub-Kelvin Temperatures

    No full text
    International audienceRare-event search experiments located on-surface, such as short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments, are often limited by muon-induced background events. Highly efficient muon vetos are essential to reduce the detector background and to reach the sensitivity goals. We demonstrate the feasibility of deploying organic plastic scintillators at sub-Kelvin temperatures. For the NUCLEUS experiment, we developed a cryogenic muon veto equipped with wavelength shifting fibers and a silicon photo multiplier operating inside a dilution refrigerator. The achievable compactness of cryostat-internal integration is a key factor in keeping the muon rate to a minimum while maximizing coverage. The thermal and light output properties of a plastic scintillation detector were examined. We report first data on the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the polystyrene-based scintillator UPS-923A over a wide range of temperatures extending below one Kelvin. The light output was measured down to 0.8K and observed to increase by a factor of 1.61±\pm0.05 compared to 300K. The development of an organic plastic scintillation muon veto operating in sub-Kelvin temperature environments opens new perspectives for rare-event searches with cryogenic detectors at sites lacking substantial overburden

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

    Get PDF
    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Crosstalk between cilia and autophagy: implication for human diseases

    Get PDF
    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradative process necessary for cells to maintain their energy balance during development and in response to nutrient deprivation. Autophagic processes are tightly regulated and have been found to be dysfunctional in several pathologies. Increasing experimental evidence points to the existence of an interplay between autophagy and cilia. Cilia are microtubule-based organelles protruding from the cell surface of mammalian cells that perform a variety of motile and sensory functions and, when dysfunctional, result in disorders known as ciliopathies. Indeed, selective autophagic degradation of ciliary proteins has been shown to control ciliogenesis and, conversely, cilia have been reported to control autophagy. Moreover, a growing number of players such as lysosomal and mitochondrial proteins are emerging as actors of the cilia-autophagy interplay. However, some of the published data on the cilia-autophagy axis are contradictory and indicate that we are just starting to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this review, the current knowledge about this axis and challenges are discussed, as well as the implication for ciliopathies and autophagy-associated disorders

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

    No full text
    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 103 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Identification and reconstruction of low-energy electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector

    Full text link
    Measurements of electrons from Îœe\nu_e interactions are crucial for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) neutrino oscillation program, as well as searches for physics beyond the standard model, supernova neutrino detection, and solar neutrino measurements. This article describes the selection and reconstruction of low-energy (Michel) electrons in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector. ProtoDUNE-SP is one of the prototypes for the DUNE far detector, built and operated at CERN as a charged particle test beam experiment. A sample of low-energy electrons produced by the decay of cosmic muons is selected with a purity of 95%. This sample is used to calibrate the low-energy electron energy scale with two techniques. An electron energy calibration based on a cosmic ray muon sample uses calibration constants derived from measured and simulated cosmic ray muon events. Another calibration technique makes use of the theoretically well-understood Michel electron energy spectrum to convert reconstructed charge to electron energy.