40 research outputs found

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites occupy and functionally adapt to the adipose tissue in mice

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    This work was supported by 55007419 (HHMI) and 2151 (EMBO) to L.M.F., D.P.-N., F.B., and F.G.; FCT fellowships to S.T., F.R.-F., and F.A.-B. (SFRH/BPD/89833/2012, SFRH/BD/51286/2010, and SFRH/BD/80718/2011, respectively); Wellcome Trust grant (093228), MRC MR/M020118/1, and European Community Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. 602773 (Project KINDRED) to S.A.Y. and T.K.S.; and PAI 7/41 (Belspo) and ERC-NANOSYM to J.V.D.A.Trypanosoma brucei is an extracellular parasite that causes sleeping sickness. In mammalian hosts, trypanosomes are thought to exist in two major niches: early in infection, they populate the blood; later, they breach the blood-brain barrier. Working with a well-established mouse model, we discovered that adipose tissue constitutes a third major reservoir for T.¬†brucei. Parasites from adipose tissue, here termed adipose tissue forms (ATFs), can replicate and were capable of infecting a naive animal. ATFs were transcriptionally distinct from bloodstream forms, and the genes upregulated included putative fatty acid ő≤-oxidation enzymes. Consistent with this, ATFs were able to utilize exogenous myristate and form ő≤-oxidation intermediates, suggesting that ATF parasites can use fatty acids as an external carbon source. These findings¬†identify the adipose tissue as a niche for T.¬†brucei during its mammalian life cycle and could potentially explain the weight loss associated with sleeping sickness.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Aplicação de xénon líquido na detecção de matéria escura

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    Tese de doutoramento em Física (Física Tecnológica) apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbr

    Digital Rehabilitation for Acute Ankle Sprains: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

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    Background: Ankle sprains are one of the most prevalent soft-tissue injuries worldwide. Physical therapy, especially progressive exercise, has proven effective in improving function, while preventing recurrence. Objective: We aim to present the results of a fully remote and digitally guided rehabilitation program for acute ankle sprains. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal cohort study of individuals eligible for workers‚Äô compensation, who were referred for digital rehabilitation therapy for a sprained ankle. Therapeutic exercise sessions were to be performed independently by the patient at home using the biofeedback device provided by SWORD Health. Primary endpoints were the change in self-reported Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure‚Äďactivities of daily living (FAAM‚ÄďADL) and FAAM‚ÄďSports scores. Participants were assessed at baseline, end of the program, and 6 months after program completion. Secondary outcomes included digital therapy dosage, pain and fatigue during sessions, and satisfaction. Results: In total, 93 (89.4%) patients completed the program and 79 (76.0%) were available for follow-up. Changes in the primary outcomes between baseline and the 6-month follow-up were both significant (P<.001) and clinically meaningful: mean difference of ‚Äď2.72 points (95% CI ‚Äď3.31 to ‚Äď2.13) on the NPRS (49.8% reduction), 21.7 points (95% CI 17.13-26.27) on the FAAM‚ÄďADL (41.1% increase), and 37.8 points (95% CI 30.45-45.15) on the FAAM-Sports (151.8% increase). Longer waiting periods between the accident date and treatment initiation were found to negatively impact functional status at baseline and at the end of the program, triggering an extension in the program duration. The total training volume (12.5 hours, SD 10.5 hours) was similar to that of other interventions for ankle sprains, but the dosage per week was much higher (2.4 hours per week, SD 0.87 hours per week). The mean patient satisfaction score was 8.8 (SD 1.57) out of 10. Among program completers, 83.9% attained full recovery and were discharged with no residual disability. Conclusions: Being far less demanding in terms of human resources, the digital program presented constituted a viable, clinically effective, and convenient solution for ankle sprain rehabilitation, particularly during the pandemic. This is the first study presenting a fully remote home-based rehabilitation program for acute ankle sprains, with patients achieving sustained long-term results. This was a prospective cohort study and, as such, did not include a control group, but the results appear comparable to those published for face-to-face interventions. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04819022; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT0481902

    The use of serum alkaline phosphatase as a choledocholithiasis marker to mitigate the cost of magnetic resonance cholangiography

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    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the predictive value of preoperative serum laboratory test results for identifying choledocholithiasis and reduce the use of cholangioresonance and its inherent costs. Methods Patients aged 21-69 years who underwent preoperative cholangioresonance examination at our institute were included. Patients with a history of fluctuating jaundice or biliary pancreatitis, bile duct dilatation on ultrasonography, and elevated levels of canalicular enzymes (alkaline phosphatase >100U/L and gamma-glutamyl transferase >50U/L) underwent cholangioresonance-guided surgery. Cases of choledocholithiasis confirmed by cholangioresonance were compared with those without choledocholithiasis. Serum laboratory data were evaluated and the diagnostic capabilities of these examinations were analyzed. Results A total of 104 patients were included. For detecting choledocholithiasis using alkaline phosphatase, the cut-off point was 78U/L, sensitivity was 97.6% (95%CI: 87.4-99.9), and specificity was 72.6% (95%CI: 59.8-83.1). In the binary logistic regression analysis, age (OR= 0.92; 95%CI: 0.86-0.98) and alkaline phosphatase level (OR= 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01-1.05) were selected for the final model. Conclusion Serum alkaline phosphatase levels may aid preoperative diagnosis of asymptomatic choledocholithiasis. After a global clinical assessment of the patient, serum laboratory findings may contribute to a reduction in cholangioresonance-related heathcare costs

    Selective Inhibition of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase by a Designed Covalent Ligand Leads to Potent Therapeutic Efficacy in Blood Cancers Relative to Clinically Used Inhibitors.

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    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a member of the TEC-family kinases and crucial for the proliferation and differentiation of B-cells. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of a covalent inhibitor (JS25) with nanomolar potency against BTK and with a more desirable selectivity and inhibitory profile compared to the FDA-approved BTK inhibitors ibrutinib and acalabrutinib. Structural prediction of the BTK/JS25 complex revealed sequestration of Tyr551 that leads to BTK's inactivation. JS25 also inhibited the proliferation of myeloid and lymphoid B-cell cancer cell lines. Its therapeutic potential was further tested against ibrutinib in preclinical models of B-cell cancers. JS25 treatment induced a more pronounced cell death in a murine xenograft model of Burkitt's lymphoma, causing a 30-40% reduction of the subcutaneous tumor and an overall reduction in the percentage of metastasis and secondary tumor formation. In a patient model of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the drug response of JS25 was higher than that of ibrutinib, leading to a 64% "on-target" efficacy. Finally, in zebrafish patient-derived xenografts of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, JS25 was faster and more effective in decreasing tumor burden, producing superior therapeutic effects compared to ibrutinib. We expect JS25 to become therapeutically relevant as a BTK inhibitor and to find applications in the treatment of hematological cancers and other pathologies with unmet clinical treatment

    1.√ā¬ļ Pr√ɬ©mio

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