11 research outputs found

    Behavioral ecology of Pseudacris crucifer.

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    Tadpoles develop quickly; thus, they are ideal subjects for studying behavioral ecology. Adaptations should allow them to increase fitness when exposed to less than optimal conditions. Behavior can consequently provide clues to a species' survival strategy. To test this, reactions of larval spring peeper frogs, Pseudacris crucifer, to environment color, refuge, food, predation, and illumination were tested in simulated environments. It was observed that tadpoles alter behavior according to the combination of variables presented. They showed significant preference for black environments to white environments, open water to refuge with or without food, and intense light to darkness (p<0.05). Tadpoles avoided predators when they were present although they seldom seemed completely cautious of them. This study supports theories that P. crucifer is better at defending itself against predation rather than competing with other species for resources. Little was known about zebra mussel distribution in Douglas Lake before this study. UMBS faculty members became aware of their presence in 2002, but their presence in Douglas Lake was not officially documented. Douglas Lake was monitored for zebra mussels by the Michigan Sea Grant in 1993, 1994, 1998, and 1999, but no adults were found (MSG, 2003). The results of this study were reported to the Michigan Sea Grant. It is my hope that zebra mussel populations and their impacts on the Douglas Lake ecosystem will continue to be monitored in the future.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/54987/1/3428.pdfDescription of 3428.pdf : Access restricted to on-site users at the U-M Biological Station

    Protein-protein and peptide-protein docking and refinement using ATTRACT in CAPRI

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    International audienceThe ATTRACT coarse-grained docking approach in combination with various types of atomistic, flexible refinement methods has been applied to predict protein-protein and peptide-protein complexes in CAPRI rounds 28-36. For a large fraction of CAPRI targets (12 out of 18), at least one model of acceptable or better quality was generated, corresponding to a success rate of 67%. In particular, for several peptide-protein complexes excellent predictions were achieved. In several cases, a combination of template-based modeling and extensive molecular dynamics-based refinement yielded medium and even high quality solutions. In one particularly challenging case, the structure of an ubiquitylation enzyme bound to the nucleosome was correctly predicted as a set of acceptable quality solutions. Based on the experience with the CAPRI targets, new interface refinement approaches and methods for ab-initio peptide-protein docking have been developed. Failures and possible improvements of the docking method with respect to scoring and protein flexibility will also be discussed

    Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

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    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams

    Data from: Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science

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    This record contains the underlying research data for the publication "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science" and the full-text is available from: https://ink.library.smu.edu.sg/lkcsb_research/5257Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams

    Prospective observational cohort study on grading the severity of postoperative complications in global surgery research

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    Background The Clavien–Dindo classification is perhaps the most widely used approach for reporting postoperative complications in clinical trials. This system classifies complication severity by the treatment provided. However, it is unclear whether the Clavien–Dindo system can be used internationally in studies across differing healthcare systems in high- (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods This was a secondary analysis of the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), a prospective observational cohort study of elective surgery in adults. Data collection occurred over a 7-day period. Severity of complications was graded using Clavien–Dindo and the simpler ISOS grading (mild, moderate or severe, based on guided investigator judgement). Severity grading was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Data are presented as frequencies and ICC values (with 95 per cent c.i.). The analysis was stratified by income status of the country, comparing HICs with LMICs. Results A total of 44 814 patients were recruited from 474 hospitals in 27 countries (19 HICs and 8 LMICs). Some 7508 patients (16·8 per cent) experienced at least one postoperative complication, equivalent to 11 664 complications in total. Using the ISOS classification, 5504 of 11 664 complications (47·2 per cent) were graded as mild, 4244 (36·4 per cent) as moderate and 1916 (16·4 per cent) as severe. Using Clavien–Dindo, 6781 of 11 664 complications (58·1 per cent) were graded as I or II, 1740 (14·9 per cent) as III, 2408 (20·6 per cent) as IV and 735 (6·3 per cent) as V. Agreement between classification systems was poor overall (ICC 0·41, 95 per cent c.i. 0·20 to 0·55), and in LMICs (ICC 0·23, 0·05 to 0·38) and HICs (ICC 0·46, 0·25 to 0·59). Conclusion Caution is recommended when using a treatment approach to grade complications in global surgery studies, as this may introduce bias unintentionally

    The surgical safety checklist and patient outcomes after surgery: a prospective observational cohort study, systematic review and meta-analysis