257 research outputs found

    Resource Allocation and the Beginning of Life

    Get PDF

    Procedural Justice: A systematic literature search and technical report to the National Policing Improvement Agency

    Get PDF
    The Research, Analysis and Information Unit (RAI) of the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) have identified ‘the procedural justice thesis’ as an important development in policing research with plans to replicate US research in a UK context. To facilitate their research agenda, the Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security (CEPS) at Griffith University developed a comprehensive search strategy and conducted a methodologically rigorous systematic literature search of procedural justice between April and June, 2009. Twenty-two keywords were identified and searched on six electronic databases and two library catalogues

    Sites of Conversation

    Get PDF
    Through our lives we sit at many tables, eating, preparing food, playing, making drawings, doing homework, working and more. In other words, the table is a focal point where words and materials meet, cross each-other, collide or come together. The table can take us to a space and time where forgotten memories emerge and embodied actions are found. The Phenomenology and Imagination Research Group (PIRG) is an independent research group whose aim is to develop research through active fine art collective practice. PIRG’s Table Method (tm) is a process that has grown organically over a period of five years and has been cultivated through a desire to bring words, texts, actions and materials together as it invites participants to respond to a text through conversation, the handling of materials and tools.  The work draws from the new materialist turn through the ideas of Gaston Bachelard, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Karen Barad and Jane Bennett.  PIRG has extended its practice of conversation as a research methodology to include the phenomenological and material interaction that has become the tm. The tm is an unfolding dialogue between materials and phenomenological thinking, which expands the possibilities of what conversation can be and become, it utilises material thinking as a way to open out discourse beyond the constraints of language and other representations

    Culturally Safe and Integrated Primary Health Care: A Case Study of Yerin Eleanor Duncan Aboriginal Health Services’ Holistic Model

    Get PDF
    Objective To understand the importance of culturally safe integrated primary health care for Aboriginal families in the Central Coast of New South Wales, where their social and emotional wellbeing is impacted through a range of health issues related to domestic and family violence. MethodsAn Indigenous methodology of yarning through conversational semi-structured interviews with seven primary health care workers at Yerin, an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in New South Wales. Yarning sessions explored factors that enable and/or inhibit the provision of holistic and comprehensive trauma and culturally informed responses to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who experience violence. ResultsFive key themes were identified: 1) The importance of integrated primary health to support women and families; 2) Soft entry pathways; 3) Culturally safe care delivered by health workers experienced in trauma informed care; 4) Community partnerships; and 5) Funding sustainable programs that are community led and delivered by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Lessons LearnedCulturally safe and trauma informed and responsive care that is integrated within primary health care is important in comprehensively meeting the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who experience domestic and family violence. The provision of soft entry pathways creates rapport and trust through an integrated team approach, highlighting the importance of more holistic service provision focusing on recovery and healing

    Evaluating the Dissemination and Implementation of a Community Health Worker-Based Community Wide Campaign to Improve Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Physical Activity among Latinos along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Get PDF
    This study evaluated the dissemination and implementation of a culturally tailored community-wide campaign (CWC), Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta! (TSSC), to augment fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and physical activity (PA) engagement among low-income Latinos of Mexican descent living along the U.S.-Mexico Border in Texas. TSSC used longitudinal community health worker (CHW) home visits as a core vehicle to enact positive change across all socioecological levels to induce behavioral change. TSSC’s reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) was examined. A dietary questionnaire and the Godin-Shepherd Exercise Questionnaire measured program effectiveness on mean daily FV consumption and weekly PA engagement, respectively. Participants were classified based on CHW home visits into “low exposure” (2–3 visits) and “high exposure” (4–5 visits) groups. The TSSC program reached low-income Latinos (n = 5686) across twelve locations. TSSC demonstrated effectiveness as, compared to the low exposure group, the high exposure group had a greater FV intake (mean difference = +0.65 FV servings daily, 95% CI: 0.53–0.77) and an increased PA (mean difference = +185.6 MET-minutes weekly, 95% CI: 105.9–265.4) from baseline to the last follow-up on a multivariable linear regression analysis. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that the high exposure group had higher odds of meeting both FV guidelines (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.65–2.47) and PA guidelines (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10–1.68) at the last follow-up. The program had a 92.3% adoption rate, with 58.3% of adopting communities meeting implementation fidelity, and 91.7% of communities maintaining TSSC. TSSC improved FV consumption and PA engagement behaviors among low-income Latinos region wide. CHW delivery and implementation funding positively influenced reach, effectiveness, adoption, and maintenance, while lack of qualified CHWs negatively impacted fidelit

    Scaling a Community-Wide Campaign Intervention to Manage Hypertension and Weight Loss

    Get PDF
    Public health impacts can be achieved when evidence-based interventions are implemented to those most in need. Too often implementation never or slowly occurs. The community-wide campaign intervention Tu Salud ¡Si Cuenta! has evidence of improving health outcomes related to chronic disease among low-income, Latinos. Using the RE-AIM Framework, this study examined if the scaled-up version of the intervention is associated with improvements in hypertension and obesity in 12 locations. Each element of the RE-AIM framework was examined. For Effectiveness, we examined outcomes overall and by implementing location. We used linear and logistic regression to assess if exposure in the intervention was associated with improvement in hypertension and weight loss. Participants were stratified into low exposure (2-3 outreach visits) vs. high exposure (4-5 outreach visits). Based on the RE-AIM Framework, the intervention reached its intended population of low-income Latinos, demonstrated effectiveness in improving hypertension and obesity, was adopted at a high level in all but one site, was implemented with fidelity to the intervention model with moderate success across locations, and showed high maintenance over time. For effectiveness specifically, we found that out of 5,019 participants, 2,508 (50%) had a baseline hypertensive blood pressure (BP) reading. Of the 2,508, 1,245 (49.9%) recovered to normal blood pressure or pre-hypertension stage by last follow-up. After adjusting for baseline BP and potential confounders in multivariable linear regression models, the high exposure group had significantly more reduction in systolic BP (adjusted mean difference in % change = -0.96; p = 0.002) and diastolic BP (adjusted mean difference in % change = -1.61; p \u3c 0.0001) compared to the low exposure group. After controlling for baseline weight and other confounders, the high exposure group had significantly greater decrease in weight compared to the low exposure group (adjusted mean difference in % change = -1.28; p \u3c 0.0001). Results from the multivariable logistic regression models indicated that compared to the low exposure group the high exposure group was more likely to achieve a clinically significant minimum 5% weight loss [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.97; p \u3c 0.0001). This study contributes evidence that a Community-Wide Campaign model holds promise for addressing hypertension and obesity among low-income Latinos

    Opt-out as an acceptable method of obtaining consent in medical research: a short report

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A prospective cohort study was set up to investigate a possible association between antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance of <it>E. coli </it>urinary tract infection in the community. Participation of patients with urinary tract infection was obtained through an opt-out methodology. This short paper reports on the acceptability of the opt-out recruitment approach.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Participating practices (22) were requested to send a urine sample from all patients presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection. Upon receipt of the sample in the laboratory, a letter explaining the study, an opt-out form and a freepost envelope were sent to all adult patients. A website with additional information and including an 'opt-out' button was set up for the study.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A total of 1362 urine samples were submitted by the 22 participating practices representing 1178 adult patients of whom 193 actively responded to the letter: 142 opted out by letter, 15 through the website, 2 by phone and 12 sent the letter back without indication, making a total of 171 patients or 14.5% opt-out; the remaining 22 patients (1.9%) explicitly opted in. The total group consisted of 80% women and the mean age was 50.9 years (sd 20.8). No significant differences were found between patients who participated and those who opted out in terms of age, gender or whether the urine sample was positive or not.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Overall the opt-out method was well received and participation in the study reached 85.5%. The low number of complaints (2) indicates that this is a generally acceptable method of patient recruitment. The 14.5% opt-out shows that it effectively empowers patients to decline participation. The similarity between patients opting out and the rest of the patients is reassuring for extrapolation of the results of the study.</p
    corecore