9,001 research outputs found

    Criticality in the collapse of spherically symmetric massless scalar fields in semi-classical loop quantum gravity

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    In a recent paper we showed that the collapse to a black hole in one-parameter families of initial data for massless, minimally coupled scalar fields in spherically symmetric semi-classical loop quantum gravity exhibited a universal mass scaling similar to the one in classical general relativity. In particular, no evidence of a mass gap appeared as had been suggested by previous studies. The lack of a mass gap indicated the possible existence of a self-similar critical solution as in general relativity. Here we provide further evidence for its existence. Using an adaptive mesh refinement code, we show that "echoes" arise as a result of the discrete self-similarity in space-time. We also show the existence of "wiggles" in the mass scaling relation, as in the classical theory. The results from the semi-classical theory agree well with those of classical general relativity unless one takes unrealistically large values for the polymerization parameter.Comment: 7 pages, RevTe

    Fingerprinting the magnetic behavior of antiferromagnetic nanostructures using remanent magnetization curves

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    Antiferromagnetic (AF) nanostructures from Co3O4, CoO and Cr2O3 were prepared by the nanocasting method and were characterized magnetometrically. The field and temperature dependent magnetization data suggests that the nanostructures consist of a core-shell structure. The core behaves as a regular antiferromagnet and the shell as a two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet in a field (2d DAFF) as previously shown on Co3O4 nanowires [Benitez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 097206 (2008)]. Here we present a more general picture on three different material systems, i.e. Co3O4, CoO and Cr2O3. In particular we consider the thermoremanent (TRM) and the isothermoremanent (IRM) magnetization curves as "fingerprints" in order to identify the irreversible magnetization contribution originating from the shells. The TRM/IRM fingerprints are compared to those of superparamagnetic systems, superspin glasses and 3d DAFFs. We demonstrate that TRM/IRM vs. H plots are generally useful fingerprints to identify irreversible magnetization contributions encountered in particular in nanomagnets.Comment: submitted to PR

    On the 2-point function of the O(N) model

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    The self-energy of the critical 3-dimensional O(N) model is calculated. The analysis is performed in the context of the Non-Perturbative Renormalization Group, by exploiting an approximation which takes into account contributions of an infinite number of vertices. A very simple calculation yields the 2-point function in the whole range of momenta, from the UV Gaussian regime to the scaling one. Results are in good agreement with best estimates in the literature for any value of N in all momenta regimes. This encourages the use of this simple approximation procedure to calculate correlation functions at finite momenta in other physical situations

    CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph

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    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Echelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alem\'an (CAHA). CAFE is a single fiber, high-resolution (R∼R\sim70000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800\AA. It was built on the basis of the common design for Echelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to V∼V\sim13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of ms−1m s^{-1}. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, so the wavelentgth coverage; no filter wheel, one slit and so on, with a particular care taken in the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the reduction pipeline; and (iv) show the results from the first light and commissioning runs. The preliminar results indicate that the instrument fulfill the specifications and it can achieve the foreseen goals. In particular, they show that the instrument is more efficient than anticipated, reaching a S/N∼S/N\sim20 for a stellar object as faint as V∼V\sim14.5 mag in ∼\sim2700s integration time. The instrument is a wonderful machine for exoplanetary research (by studying large samples of possible systems cotaining massive planets), galactic dynamics (high precise radial velocities in moving groups or stellar associations) or astrochemistry.Comment: 12 pages, 23 figures; Acepted for publishing in A&A, 201

    Rotational dynamics induced by low energy binary collisions of quantum droplets

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    A theoretical analysis of the rotational dynamics induced by off axis binary collisions of quantum droplets constituted by ultracold atoms is reported. We focus on quantum droplets formed by degenerate dilute Bose gases made up from binary mixtures of alkaline atoms under feasible experimental conditions. The stability of the ground state is known to be longer for the chosen heteronuclear gases than for the homonuclear ones. In both cases, we find out that the dynamics seems to privilege a high similarity of the density of each atomic species. However, the evolution of the phase of the corresponding order parameter differs significantly for heteronuclear admixtures. We evaluate the fidelity as a figure of merit for the overlap between the order parameters of each atomic species. Dynamical evidence of the differences between the phase of the order parameters are predicted to manifest in their corresponding linear and angular momenta. We numerically verify that the total angular and linear momenta are conserved both during the collision. Some direct correlations between the Weber number and the impact parameter with the distribution of the dynamical variables are established.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figure

    General framework of the non-perturbative renormalization group for non-equilibrium steady states

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    This paper is devoted to presenting in detail the non-perturbative renormalization group (NPRG) formalism to investigate out-of-equilibrium systems and critical dynamics in statistical physics. The general NPRG framework for studying non-equilibrium steady states in stochastic models is expounded and fundamental technicalities are stressed, mainly regarding the role of causality and of Ito's discretization. We analyze the consequences of Ito's prescription in the NPRG framework and eventually provide an adequate regularization to encode them automatically. Besides, we show how to build a supersymmetric NPRG formalism with emphasis on time-reversal symmetric problems, whose supersymmetric structure allows for a particularly simple implementation of NPRG in which causality issues are transparent. We illustrate the two approaches on the example of Model A within the derivative expansion approximation at order two, and check that they yield identical results.Comment: 28 pages, 1 figure, minor corrections prior to publicatio

    Solutions of renormalization group flow equations with full momentum dependence

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    We demonstrate the power of a recently-proposed approximation scheme for the non-perturbative renormalization group that gives access to correlation functions over their full momentum range. We solve numerically the leading-order flow equations obtained within this scheme, and compute the two-point functions of the O(N) theories at criticality, in two and three dimensions. Excellent results are obtained for both universal and non-universal quantities at modest numerical cost.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figur

    Primordial Earth mantle heterogeneity caused by the Moon-forming giant impact

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    The giant impact hypothesis for Moon formation successfully explains the dynamic properties of the Earth–Moon system but remains challenged by the similarity of isotopic fingerprints of the terrestrial and lunar mantles. Moreover, recent geochemical evidence suggests that the Earth's mantle preserves ancient (or "primordial") heterogeneity that pre-dates the Moon-forming giant impact. Using a new hydrodynamical method, we here show that Moon-forming giant impacts lead to a stratified starting condition for the evolution of the terrestrial mantle. The upper layer of the Earth is compositionally similar to the disk, out of which the Moon evolves, whereas the lower layer preserves proto-Earth characteristics. As long as this predicted compositional stratification can at least partially be preserved over the subsequent billions of years of Earth mantle convection, a compositional similarity between the Moon and the accessible Earth's mantle is a natural outcome of realistic and high-probability Moon-forming impact scenarios. The preservation of primordial heterogeneity in the modern Earth not only reconciles geochemical constraints but is also consistent with recent geophysical observations. Furthermore, for significant preservation of a proto-Earth reservoir, the bulk major-element composition of the Earth–Moon system may be systematically shifted toward chondritic values

    Folding of a donor–acceptor polyrotaxane by using noncovalent bonding interactions

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    Mechanically interlocked compounds, such as bistable catenanes and bistable rotaxanes, have been used to bring about actuation in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and molecular electronic devices (MEDs). The elaboration of the structural features of such rotaxanes into macromolecular materials might allow the utilization of molecular motion to impact their bulk properties. We report here the synthesis and characterization of polymers that contain π electron-donating 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) units encircled by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+), a π electron-accepting tetracationic cyclophane, synthesized by using the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The polyrotaxanes adopt a well defined “folded” secondary structure by virtue of the judicious design of two DNP-containing monomers with different binding affinities for CBPQT4+. This efficient approach to the preparation of polyrotaxanes, taken alongside the initial investigations of their chemical properties, sets the stage for the preparation of a previously undescribed class of macromolecular architectures
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