2,885 research outputs found

    The Thin Gap Chambers database experience in test beam and preparations for ATLAS

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    Thin gap chambers (TGCs) are used for the muon trigger system in the forward region of the LHC experiment ATLAS. The TGCs are expected to provide a trigger signal within 25 ns of the bunch spacing. An extensive system test of the ATLAS muon spectrometer has been performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS during the last few years. A relational database was used for storing the conditions of the tests as well as the configuration of the system. This database has provided the detector control system with the information needed for configuration of the front end electronics. The database is used to assist the online operation and maintenance. The same database is used to store the non event condition and configuration parameters needed later for the offline reconstruction software. A larger scale of the database has been produced to support the whole TGC system. It integrates all the production, QA tests and assembly information. A 1/12th model of the whole TGC system is currently in use for testing the performance of this database in configuring and tracking the condition of the system. A prototype of the database was first implemented during the H8 test beams. This paper describes the database structure, its interface to other systems and its operational performance.Comment: Proceedings IEEE, Nuclear Science Symposium 2005, Stockholm, Sweeden, May 200

    Using a neural network approach for muon reconstruction and triggering

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    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to take precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. We present a study which used an artificial neural network triggering algorithm and compared it to the performance of a dedicated electronic muon triggering system. Relatively simple architecture was used to solve a complicated inverse problem. A comparison with a realistic example of the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network. A similar architecture trained after the simulation of the electronics first trigger stage showed a further background rejection.Comment: A talk given at ACAT03, KEK, Japan, November 2003. Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section

    The Certification of ATLAS Thin Gap Chambers Produced in Israel and China

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    Thin gap chambers (TGCs) are used for the muon trigger system in the forward region of the LHC experiment ATLAS. A TGC consists of a plane of closely spaced wires maintained at positive high voltage, sandwiched between resistive grounded cathode planes with an anode wire to cathode plane gap distance smaller than the wire-to-wire spacing. The TGCs are expected to provide a trigger signal within 25 ns of the bunch spacing of the LHC accelerator, with an efficiency exceeding 95%, while exposed to an effective photon and neutron background ranging from 30 to 500 Hz/cm2. About 2,500 out of the 3,600 ATLAS TGCs are being produced at the Weizmann institute in Israel, and in Shandong University in China. Once installed in the ATLAS detector the TGCs will be inaccessible. A vigorous production quality control program is therefore implemented at the production sites. Furthermore, after chamber completion, a thorough program of quality assurance is implemented to ensure the efficient performance of the chambers during more than ten years of operation in the LHC high rate environment. This program consists of a detailed mapping of the detectors response using cosmic rays, as well as checking the chambers behavior using a high rate radiation source. An aging test performed on five chambers in a serial gas connection is presented. Finally the results of the chambers certification tests performed at CERN before the installation in ATLAS are described.Comment: Presented at 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium 2004, Rome, Oct 200

    Effects of Phenol Addition on Oil Extraction from Moroccan Oil Shale by Supercritical Toluene

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    In the present work, the effect of phenol on the supercritical extraction of the organic matter from Tarfaya's oil shale with toluene was evaluated. The experimental results showed clearly that phenol had a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the oils obtained. Moreover, it was shown that phenol was a very efficient modifier for oil shale, giving a good yield of recovery and a suitable maturation of the organic matter. The pitches prepared by mixing phenol and toluene contain more aromatics and have a high char yield at 950 °C compared to those obtained by extraction with supercritical toluene alone

    The Cosmic Ray Hodoscopes for Testing Thin Gap Chambers at the Technion and Tel Aviv University

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    Thin gap chambers (TGCs) are built for the muon trigger chambers in the endcap region of the LHC experiment ATLAS. More than 2500 ATLAS TGCs are being produced at the Weizmann institute in Israel, and in Shandong University in China. Detailed testing of these chambers is performed at the Technion and at the Tel-Aviv University. Two cosmic ray hodoscopes for testing the operation of these detectors were built in Israel. In these hodoscopes the response of the chambers to energetic cosmic ray muons is recorded and analyzed. The hodoscopes measure the exact time and space location of the cosmic ray hit and read out the chambers which are being tested to verify that they produce a corresponding signal within the required time interval. The cosmic ray hodoscopes built at the Technion and at the Tel Aviv University for the test of ATLAS TGCs are described. The mechanical structure, readout electronics, data acquisition and operating scheme are presented. Typical TGC test results are presented and discussed

    Precise Timing Adjustment for the ATLAS Level1 Endcap Muon Trigger System

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    The ATLAS level1 endcap muon trigger system consists of about 4000 Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) with 320,000 input electronics channels in order to find level1 trigger candidates for muons in both endcap regions. We had already adjusted channel-to-channel timing difference in overall TGC system with 1.2ns level, and found its consistency with the observation of beam halo events in the first proton circulation of LHC in September 2008. After that we have found some more correction factors to be incorporated with and eventually achieved timing adjustment in 0.9ns precision. In this presentation we also discuss an effective strategy for a parameter that can be adjusted using colliding beams

    The interrelatedness of cognitive abilities in very preterm and full‐term born children at 5.5 years of age : a psychometric network analysis approach

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    Background Very preterm (VP) birth is associated with a considerable risk for cognitive impairment, putting children at a disadvantage in academic and everyday life. Despite lower cognitive ability on the group level, there are large individual differences among VP born children. Contemporary theories define intelligence as a network of reciprocally connected cognitive abilities. Therefore, intelligence was studied as a network of interrelated abilities to provide insight into interindividual differences. We described and compared the network of cognitive abilities, including strength of interrelations between and the relative importance of abilities, of VP and full-term (FT) born children and VP children with below-average and average-high intelligence at 5.5 years. Methods A total of 2,253 VP children from the EPIPAGE-2 cohort and 578 FT controls who participated in the 5.5-year-follow-up were eligible for inclusion. The WPPSI-IV was used to measure verbal comprehension, visuospatial abilities, fluid reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Psychometric network analysis was applied to analyse the data. Results Cognitive abilities were densely and positively interconnected in all networks, but the strength of connections differed between networks. The cognitive network of VP children was more strongly interconnected than that of FT children. Furthermore, VP children with below average IQ had a more strongly connected network than VP children with average-high IQ. Contrary to our expectations, working memory had the least central role in all networks. Conclusions In line with the ability differentiation hypothesis, children with higher levels of cognitive ability had a less interconnected and more specialised cognitive structure. Composite intelligence scores may therefore mask domain-specific deficits, particularly in children at risk for cognitive impairments (e.g., VP born children), even when general intelligence is unimpaired. In children with strongly and densely connected networks, domain-specific deficits may have a larger overall impact, resulting in lower intelligence levels

    Performance of fully instrumented detector planes of the forward calorimeter of a Linear Collider detector

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    Detector-plane prototypes of the very forward calorimetry of a future detector at an e+e- collider have been built and their performance was measured in an electron beam. The detector plane comprises silicon or GaAs pad sensors, dedicated front-end and ADC ASICs, and an FPGA for data concentration. Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio and the response as a function of the position of the sensor are presented. A deconvolution method is successfully applied, and a comparison of the measured shower shape as a function of the absorber depth with a Monte-Carlo simulation is given.Comment: 25 pages, 32 figures, revised version following comments from referee