2,698 research outputs found

    Impacts of misalignment effects on the Muon Spectrometer Performance

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    The ATLAS detector, currently being installed at CERN, is designed to exploit the full potential of the LHC, identifying and providing highly accurate energy and momentum measurements of particles emerging from the LHC protonproton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy at 14 TeV, starting in 2007. High-momentum final-state muons are among the most promising signatures at the LHC, thanks to a high-resolution Muon Spectrometer with standalone triggering and momentum measurement. As well known, muons interact primarily trough their electromagnetic charge, but since they are 200 times more massive than the electrons they are less affected by the electric fields of the nuclei they encounter. Muons with an energy of more than a few GeV penetrate the calorimeter and can reach the Muon Spectrometer, which consists out of more than 1.200 single drift-tubes chambers. The correct alignment of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is crucial to ensure its design performance. This note documents the first attempt at using various misaligned Muonspectrometer layouts to study their impacts Muon Spectrometer performance

    Overall quality optimization for DQM stage in High Energy Physics experiments

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    Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) are key parts in the HEP data chain, where the data are processed and analyzed to obtain accurate monitoring quality indicators. Such stages are complex, including an intense processing work-flow and requiring a high degree of interoperability between software and hardware facilities. Data recorded by DAQ sensors and devices are sampled to perform live (and offline) DQM of the status of the detector during data collection providing to the system and scientists the ability to identify problems with extremely low latency, minimizing the amount of data that would otherwise be unsuitable for physical analysis. DQM stage performs a large set of operations (Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), clustering, classification algorithms, Region of Interest, particles tracking, etc.) involving the use of computing resources and time, depending on the number of events of the experiment, sampling data, complexity of the tasks or the quality performance. The objective of our work is to show a proposal with aim of developing a general optimization of the DQM stage considering all these elements. Techniques based on computational intelligence like EA can help improve the performance and therefore achieve an optimization of task scheduling in DQM.(MINECO - Gov. of Spain) P12-TIC-2958 TIN2016-81113-

    Implementation of chamber misalignments and deformations in the ATLAS muon spectrometer simulation

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    "The implementation of run-time dependent corrections for alignment and distortions in the detector description of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer is discussed, along with the strategies for studying such effects in dedicated simulations."http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/64214/1/jpconf8_119_032010.pd

    Behavior and Impact of Zirconium in the Soil–Plant System: Plant Uptake and Phytotoxicity

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    Because of the large number of sites they pollute, toxic metals that contaminate terrestrial ecosystems are increasingly of environmental and sanitary concern (Uzu et al. 2010, 2011; Shahid et al. 2011a, b, 2012a). Among such metals is zirconium (Zr), which has the atomic number 40 and is a transition metal that resembles titanium in physical and chemical properties (Zaccone et al. 2008). Zr is widely used in many chemical industry processes and in nuclear reactors (Sandoval et al. 2011; Kamal et al. 2011), owing to its useful properties like hardness, corrosion-resistance and permeable to neutrons (Mushtaq 2012). Hence, the recent increased use of Zr by industry, and the occurrence of the Chernobyl and Fukashima catastrophe have enhanced environmental levels in soil and waters (Yirchenko and Agapkina 1993; Mosulishvili et al. 1994 ; Kruglov et al. 1996)

    A glutathione s-transferase confers herbicide tolerance in rice

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    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been a focus of attention due to their role in herbicide detoxification. OsGSTL2 is a glutathione S-transferase, lambda class gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.). Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsGSTL2 were generated from rice calli by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system, and were screened by a combination of hygromycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot analysis. In the vegetative tissues of transgenic rice plants, the over-expression of OsGSTL2 not only increased levels of OsGSTL2 transcripts, but also GST and GPX expression, while reduced superoxide. Transgenic rice plants also showed higher tolerance to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, which often contaminate agricultural fields. The findings demonstrate the detoxification role of OsGSTL2 in the growth and development of rice plants. It should be possible to apply the present results to crops for developing herbicide tolerance and for limiting herbicide contamination in the food chain

    Study of Leading Hadrons in Gluon and Quark Fragmentation

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    The study of quark jets in e+e- reactions at LEP has demonstrated that the hadronisation process is reproduced well by the Lund string model. However, our understanding of gluon fragmentation is less complete. In this study enriched quark and gluon jet samples of different purities are selected in three-jet events from hadronic decays of the Z collected by the DELPHI experiment in the LEP runs during 1994 and 1995. The leading systems of the two kinds of jets are defined by requiring a rapidity gap and their sum of charges is studied. An excess of leading systems with total charge zero is found for gluon jets in all cases, when compared to Monte Carlo Simulations with JETSET (with and without Bose-Einstein correlations included) and ARIADNE. The corresponding leading systems of quark jets do not exhibit such an excess. The influence of the gap size and of the gluon purity on the effect is studied and a concentration of the excess of neutral leading systems at low invariant masses (<~ 2 GeV/c^2) is observed, indicating that gluon jets might have an additional hitherto undetected fragmentation mode via a two-gluon system. This could be an indication of a possible production of gluonic states as predicted by QCD.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figures, Accepted by Phys. Lett.

    Determination of the b quark mass at the M_Z scale with the DELPHI detector at LEP

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    An experimental study of the normalized three-jet rate of b quark events with respect to light quarks events (light= \ell \equiv u,d,s) has been performed using the CAMBRIDGE and DURHAM jet algorithms. The data used were collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP on the Z peak from 1994 to 2000. The results are found to agree with theoretical predictions treating mass corrections at next-to-leading order. Measurements of the b quark mass have also been performed for both the b pole mass: M_b and the b running mass: m_b(M_Z). Data are found to be better described when using the running mass. The measurement yields: m_b(M_Z) = 2.85 +/- 0.18 (stat) +/- 0.13 (exp) +/- 0.19 (had) +/- 0.12 (theo) GeV/c^2 for the CAMBRIDGE algorithm. This result is the most precise measurement of the b mass derived from a high energy process. When compared to other b mass determinations by experiments at lower energy scales, this value agrees with the prediction of Quantum Chromodynamics for the energy evolution of the running mass. The mass measurement is equivalent to a test of the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant with an accuracy of 7 permil.Comment: 24 pages, 10 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.

    Measurement and Interpretation of Fermion-Pair Production at LEP energies above the Z Resonance

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    This paper presents DELPHI measurements and interpretations of cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries, and angular distributions, for the e+e- -> ffbar process for centre-of-mass energies above the Z resonance, from sqrt(s) ~ 130 - 207 GeV at the LEP collider. The measurements are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model and are used to study a variety of models including the S-Matrix ansatz for e+e- -> ffbar scattering and several models which include physics beyond the Standard Model: the exchange of Z' bosons, contact interactions between fermions, the exchange of gravitons in large extra dimensions and the exchange of sneutrino in R-parity violating supersymmetry.Comment: 79 pages, 16 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.

    A Determination of the Centre-of-Mass Energy at LEP2 using Radiative 2-fermion Events

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    Using e+e- -> mu+mu-(gamma) and e+e- -> qqbar(gamma) events radiative to the Z pole, DELPHI has determined the centre-of-mass energy, sqrt{s}, using energy and momentum constraint methods. The results are expressed as deviations from the nominal LEP centre-of-mass energy, measured using other techniques. The results are found to be compatible with the LEP Energy Working Group estimates for a combination of the 1997 to 2000 data sets.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figures, Accepted by Eur. Phys. J.
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