1,720 research outputs found

    Frequency dependent polarizability of small metallic grains

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    We study the dynamic electronic polarizability of a single nano-scale spherical metallic grain using quantum mechanical approach. We introduce the model for interacting electrons bound in the grain allowing us numerically to calculate the frequency dependence of the polarizability of grains of different sizes. We show that within this model the main resonance peak corresponding to the surface plasmon mode is blue-shifted and some minor secondary resonances above and below the main peak exist. We study the behavior of blue shift as a function of grain size and compare our findings with the classical polarizability and with other results in the literature.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figure

    White dwarfs stripped by massive black holes: sources of coincident gravitational and electromagnetic radiation

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    White dwarfs inspiraling into black holes of mass \MBH\simgt 10^5M_\odot are detectable sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band. In many of these events, the white dwarf begins to lose mass during the main observational phase of the inspiral. The mass loss starts gently and can last for thousands of orbits. The white dwarf matter overflows the Roche lobe through the L1L_1 point at each pericenter passage and the mass loss repeats periodically. The process occurs very close to the black hole and the released gas can accrete, creating a bright source of radiation with luminosity close to the Eddington limit, L∼1043L\sim 10^{43}~erg~s−1^{-1}. This class of inspirals offers a promising scenario for dual detections of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. Minor changes. Accepted in MNRAS Letters on August 6 201

    Single-electron latch with granular film charge leakage suppressor

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    A single-electron latch is a device that can be used as a building block for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) circuits. It consists of three nanoscale metal "dots" connected in series by tunnel junctions; charging of the dots is controlled by three electrostatic gates. One very important feature of a single-electron latch is its ability to store ("latch") information represented by the location of a single electron within the three dots. To obtain latching, the undesired leakage of charge during the retention time must be suppressed. Previously, to achieve this goal, multiple tunnel junctions were used to connect the three dots. However, this method of charge leakage suppression requires an additional compensation of the background charges affecting each parasitic dot in the array of junctions. We report a single-electron latch where a granular metal film is used to fabricate the middle dot in the latch which concurrently acts as a charge leakage suppressor. This latch has no parasitic dots, therefore the background charge compensation procedure is greatly simplified. We discuss the origins of charge leakage suppression and possible applications of granular metal dots for various single-electron circuits.Comment: 21 pages, 4 figure

    Phase-Charge Duality of a Josephson junction in a fluctuating electromagnetic environment

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    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics of a single Josephson junction placed in a high impedance environment. The transfer of Cooper pairs through the junction is governed by overdamped quasicharge dynamics, leading to Coulomb blockade and Bloch oscillations. Exact duality exists to the standard overdamped phase dynamics of a Josephson junction, resulting in a dual shape of the current-voltage characteristic, with current and voltage changing roles. We demonstrate this duality with experiments which allow for a quantitative comparison with a theory that includes the effect of fluctuations due to finite temperature of the electromagnetic environment

    Magnetoresistance of Granular Superconducting Metals in a Strong Magnetic Field

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    The magnetoresistance of a granular superconductor in a strong magnetic field is considered. It is assumed that this field destroys the superconducting gap in each grain, such that all interesting effects considered in the paper are due to superconducting fluctuations. The conductance of the system is assumed to be large, which allows us to neglect all localization effects as well as the Coulomb interaction. It is shown that at low temperatures the superconducting fluctuations reduce the one-particle density of states but do not contribute to transport. As a result, the resistivity of the normal state exceeds the classical resistivity approaching the latter only in the limit of extremely strong magnetic fields, and this leads to a negative magnetoresistance. We present detailed calculations of physical quatities relevant for describing the effect and make a comparison with existing experiments.Comment: 24 pages, 10 figure

    Quantum interference and Coulomb interaction in arrays of tunnel junctions

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    We study the electronic properties of an array of small metallic grains connected by tunnel junctions. Such an array serves as a model for a granular metal. Previous theoretical studies of junction arrays were based on models of quantum dissipation which did not take into account the diffusive motion of electrons within the grains. We demonstrate that these models break down at sufficiently low temperatures: for a correct description of the screening properties of a granular metal at low energies the diffusive nature of the electronic motion within the grains is crucial. We present both a diagrammatic and a functional integral approach to analyse the properties of junction arrays. In particular, a new effective action is obtained which enables us to describe the array at arbitrary temperature. In the low temperature limit, our theory yields the correct, dynamically screened Coulomb interaction of a normal metal, whereas at high temperatures the standard description in terms of quantum dissipation is recovered.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure
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