1,690 research outputs found

    Novel yeast taxa from the cold: description of Cryolevonia giraudoae sp. nov. and Camptobasidium gelus sp. nov.

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    Twenty-one psychrophilic yeast isolates related to the Camptobasidiaceae family in the Microbotryomycetes class were obtained from ice collected from cold environments worldwide. A new psychrophilic species from the recently described genus Cryole-vonia, Cryolevania giraudoae is proposed to accommodate 18 isolates from Patagonia (Argentina) and Antarctica (holotype CRUB 2086T). In addition, a new psychrophilic species in the genus Camptobasidium is described as Camptobasidium gelus sp. nov. (holotype CBS 8941T), based on three isolates from glacial ice in the Russel glacier (Greenland ice sheet) and Antarctica. The strict psychrophilic profile is the salient feature of both novel species.Fil: de Garcia, Virginia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Patagonia Norte. Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas; ArgentinaFil: Trochine, Andrea. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Patagonia Norte. Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales; ArgentinaFil: Uetake, Jun. National Institute of Polar Research; JapónFil: Bellora, Nicolás. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Patagonia Norte. Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales; ArgentinaFil: Libkind, Diego. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Patagonia Norte. Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Instituto Andino Patagónico de Tecnologías Biológicas y Geoambientales; Argentin

    Novel Immunoregulatory Functions of IL-18, an Accomplice of TGF-\u3b21

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    TGF-\u3b21 is a pleiotropic factor exerting a strong regulatory role in several cell types, including immune cells. In NK cells it profoundly alters the surface expression of crucial activating and chemokine receptors. To understand which soluble signals might better contrast these effects, we cultured human NK cells in the presence of TGF-\u3b21 and different innate and adaptive cytokines, generally referred as "immunostimulatory". These included IL-2, IL-15, IL-21, IL-27, and IL-18. Unexpectedly, IL-18 strengthened rather than contrasting important TGF-\u3b21-mediated functions. In particular, IL-18 further reduced the expression of CX\u2083CR1 and NKp30, leading to the virtual abrogation of the triggering capability of this activating receptor. Moreover, IL-18 further increased the expression of CXCR4. The IL-18-mediated additive effect on NKp30 and CXCR4 expression involved transcriptional regulation and activation of MEK/ERK and/or p38MAPK. A proteomic approach quantified both surface and intracellular proteins significantly modified in cytokine-treated NK cells, thus giving global information on the biological processes involving TGF-\u3b21 and IL-18. Our data support the concept that IL-18 may have a different behavior depending on the type of soluble factors characterizing the microenvironment. In a TGF-\u3b21 rich milieu such as tumors, it may contribute to the impairment of both NK cells recruitment and killing capability

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum

    Colorectal Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy

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    IMPORTANCE Delays in screening programs and the reluctance of patients to seek medical attention because of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 could be associated with the risk of more advanced colorectal cancers at diagnosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was associated with more advanced oncologic stage and change in clinical presentation for patients with colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included all 17 938 adult patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (pandemic period), and from January 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020 (prepandemic period), in 81 participating centers in Italy, including tertiary centers and community hospitals. Follow-up was 30 days from surgery. EXPOSURES Any type of surgical procedure for colorectal cancer, including explorative surgery, palliative procedures, and atypical or segmental resections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was advanced stage of colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were distant metastasis, T4 stage, aggressive biology (defined as cancer with at least 1 of the following characteristics: signet ring cells, mucinous tumor, budding, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymphangitis), stenotic lesion, emergency surgery, and palliative surgery. The independent association between the pandemic period and the outcomes was assessed using multivariate random-effects logistic regression, with hospital as the cluster variable. RESULTS A total of 17 938 patients (10 007 men [55.8%]; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [12.2] years) underwent surgery for colorectal cancer: 7796 (43.5%) during the pandemic period and 10 142 (56.5%) during the prepandemic period. Logistic regression indicated that the pandemic period was significantly associated with an increased rate of advanced-stage colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95%CI, 1.01-1.13; P = .03), aggressive biology (OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.15-1.53; P < .001), and stenotic lesions (OR, 1.15; 95%CI, 1.01-1.31; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This cohort study suggests a significant association between the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the risk of a more advanced oncologic stage at diagnosis among patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer and might indicate a potential reduction of survival for these patients

    IL-1R8 is a checkpoint in NK cells regulating anti-tumour and anti-viral activity

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    Interleukin-1 receptor 8 (IL-1R8, also known as single immunoglobulin IL-1R-related receptor, SIGIRR, or TIR8) is a member of the IL-1 receptor (ILR) family with distinct structural and functional characteristics, acting as a negative regulator of ILR and Toll-like receptor (TLR) downstream signalling pathways and inflammation. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells which mediate resistance against pathogens and contribute to the activation and orientation of adaptive immune responses. NK cells mediate resistance against haematopoietic neoplasms but are generally considered to play a minor role in solid tumour carcinogenesis. Here we report that IL-1R8 serves as a checkpoint for NK cell maturation and effector function. Its genetic blockade unleashes NK-cell-mediated resistance to hepatic carcinogenesis, haematogenous liver and lung metastasis, and cytomegalovirus infection
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