4,162 research outputs found

    Charged Black Hole Remnants at the LHC

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    We investigate possible signatures of long-lived (or stable) charged black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we find that black hole remnants are characterised by quite low speed. Due to this fact, the charged remnants could, in some cases, be very clearly distinguished from the background events, exploiting dE/dX measurements. We also compare the estimate energy released by such remnants with that of typical Standard Model particles, using the Bethe-Bloch formula.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures, minor changes to match the accepted version to appear in EPJ

    Standardized on-road tests assessing fitness-to-drive in people with cognitive impairments: A systematic review.

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    The on-road assessment is the gold standard because of its ecological validity. Yet existing instruments are heterogeneous and little is known about their psychometric properties. This study identified existing on-road assessment instruments and extracted data on psychometric properties and usability in clinical settings. A systematic review identified studies evaluating standardized on-road evaluation instruments adapted for people with cognitive impairment. Published articles were searched on PubMed, CINHAL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect. Study quality and the level of evidence were assessed using the COSMIN checklist. The collected data were synthetized using a narrative approach. Usability was subjectively assessed for each instrument by extracting information on acceptability, access, cost, and training. The review identified 18 published studies between 1994 and 2016 that investigated 12 different on-road evaluation instruments: the Performance-Based Driving Evaluation, the Washington University Road Test, the New Haven, the Test Ride for Practical Fitness to Drive, the Rhode Island Road Test, the Sum of Manoeuvres Score, the Performance Analysis of Driving Ability, the Composite Driving Assessment Scale, the Nottingham Neurological Driving Assessment, the Driving Observation Schedule, the Record of Driving Errors, and the Western University's On-road Assessment. Participants were mainly male (64%), between 48 and 80 years old, and had a broad variety of cognitive disorders. Most instruments showed reasonable psychometric values for internal consistency, criterion validity, and reliability. However, the level of evidence was poor to support any of the instruments given the low number of studies for each. Despite the social and health consequences of decisions taken using these instruments, little is known about the value of a single evaluation and the ability of instruments to identify expected changes. None of the identified on-road evaluation instruments seem currently adapted for clinical settings targeting rehabilitation and occupational priorities rather than road security alone. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018103276

    Pulmonary tuberculosis followed by sarcoidosis in an HIV-infected patient: a case report and a simplified diagnostic flowchart for diagnosis and treatment of sarcoidosis

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    The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies. We propose a simplified flowchart for diagnosis and follow up of sarcoidosis, which may also be applied to patients with HIV infection. Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) may be difficult in these patients, because the immunological paradox of sarcoidosis. For this reason, following exclusion of active tuberculosis, we advise to submit all sarcoidosis patients to IPT (isoniazid preventive therapy), when immunosuppressive therapy is started

    Searching for galaxy clusters in the Kilo-Degree Survey

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    In this paper, we present the tools used to search for galaxy clusters in the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), and our first results. The cluster detection is based on an implementation of the optimal filtering technique that enables us to identify clusters as over-densities in the distribution of galaxies using their positions on the sky, magnitudes, and photometric redshifts. The contamination and completeness of the cluster catalog are derived using mock catalogs based on the data themselves. The optimal signal to noise threshold for the cluster detection is obtained by randomizing the galaxy positions and selecting the value that produces a contamination of less than 20%. Starting from a subset of clusters detected with high significance at low redshifts, we shift them to higher redshifts to estimate the completeness as a function of redshift: the average completeness is ~ 85%. An estimate of the mass of the clusters is derived using the richness as a proxy. We obtained 1858 candidate clusters with redshift 0 < z_c < 0.7 and mass 13.5 < log(M500/Msun) < 15 in an area of 114 sq. degrees (KiDS ESO-DR2). A comparison with publicly available Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-based cluster catalogs shows that we match more than 50% of the clusters (77% in the case of the redMaPPer catalog). We also cross-matched our cluster catalog with the Abell clusters, and clusters found by XMM and in the Planck-SZ survey; however, only a small number of them lie inside the KiDS area currently available.Comment: 13 pages, 15 figures. Accepted for publication on Astronomy & Astrophysic

    A PCA-based automated finder for galaxy-scale strong lenses

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    We present an algorithm using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to subtract galaxies from imaging data, and also two algorithms to find strong, galaxy-scale gravitational lenses in the resulting residual image. The combined method is optimized to find full or partial Einstein rings. Starting from a pre-selection of potential massive galaxies, we first perform a PCA to build a set of basis vectors. The galaxy images are reconstructed using the PCA basis and subtracted from the data. We then filter the residual image with two different methods. The first uses a curvelet (curved wavelets) filter of the residual images to enhance any curved/ring feature. The resulting image is transformed in polar coordinates, centered on the lens galaxy center. In these coordinates, a ring is turned into a line, allowing us to detect very faint rings by taking advantage of the integrated signal-to-noise in the ring (a line in polar coordinates). The second way of analysing the PCA-subtracted images identifies structures in the residual images and assesses whether they are lensed images according to their orientation, multiplicity and elongation. We apply the two methods to a sample of simulated Einstein rings, as they would be observed with the ESA Euclid satellite in the VIS band. The polar coordinates transform allows us to reach a completeness of 90% and a purity of 86%, as soon as the signal-to-noise integrated in the ring is higher than 30, and almost independent of the size of the Einstein ring. Finally, we show with real data that our PCA-based galaxy subtraction scheme performs better than traditional subtraction based on model fitting to the data. Our algorithm can be developed and improved further using machine learning and dictionary learning methods, which would extend the capabilities of the method to more complex and diverse galaxy shapes

    Accuracy of photometric redshifts for future weak lensing surveys from space

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    Photometric redshifts are a key tool to extract as much information as possible from planned cosmic shear experiments. In this work we aim to test the performances that can be achieved with observations in the near-infrared from space and in the optical from the ground. This is done by performing realistic simulations of multi-band observations of a patch of the sky, and submitting these mock images to software usually applied to real images to extract the photometry and then a redshift estimate for each galaxy. In this way we mimic the most relevant sources of uncertainty present in real data analysis, including blending and light pollution between galaxies. As an example we adopt the infrared setup of the ESA-proposed Euclid mission, while we simulate different observations in the optical, modifying filters, exposure times and seeing values. Finally, we consider directly some future ground-based experiments, such as LSST, Pan-Starrs and DES. The results highlight the importance of u-band observations, especially to discriminate between low (z < 0.5) and high (z ~ 3) redshifts, and the need for good observing sites, with seeing FWHM < 1. arcsec. The former of these indications clearly favours the LSST experiment as a counterpart for space observations, while for the other experiments we need to exclude at least 15 % of the galaxies to reach a precision in the photo-zs equal to < 0.05.Comment: 11 pages, to be published in MNRAS. Minor changes to match the published versio

    Events with Isolated Charged Leptons and Large Missing Transverse Momentum at HERA

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    Striking events with isolated charged leptons, large missing transverse momentum and large transverse momentum of the hadronic final state were observed at the electron proton collider HERA in a data sample corresponding to a luminosity of about 130 pb-1. The H1 collaboration observed 11 events with isolated electrons or muons and with transverse momentum above 25 GeV. Only 3.4+-0.6 events were expected from Standard Model (SM) processes. Six of these events have a transverse momentum of greater than 40 GeV, while 1.3+-0.3 events were expected. The ZEUS collaboration observed good agreement with the SM. However, ZEUS found two events with a similar event topology, but tau leptons instead of electrons or muons in the final state. Only 0.2+-0.05 events were expected from SM processes. For various hypotheses the compatibility of the experimental results was investigated with respect to the SM and with respect to possible explanations beyond the SM. Prospects for the high-luminosity HERA-II data taking period are given

    Optimal filtering of optical and weak lensing data to search for galaxy clusters: application to the COSMOS field

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    Galaxy clusters are usually detected in blind optical surveys via suitable filtering methods. We present an optimal matched filter which maximizes their signal-to-noise ratio by taking advantage of the knowledge we have of their intrinsic physical properties and of the data noise properties. In this paper we restrict our application to galaxy magnitudes, positions and photometric redshifts if available, and we also apply the filter separately to weak lensing data. The method is suitable to be naturally extended to a multi-band approach which could include not only additional optical bands but also observables with different nature such as X-rays. For each detection, the filter provides its significance, an estimate for the richness and for the redshift even if photo-z are not given. The provided analytical error estimate is tested against numerical simulations. We finally apply our method to the COSMOS field and compare the results with previous cluster detections obtained with different methods. Our catalogue contains 27 galaxy clusters with minimal threshold at 3-sigma level including both optical and weak-lensing information.Comment: 15 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA