1,333 research outputs found

    Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding the cytosolic precursors of subunits GapA and GapB of chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from pea and spinach

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    Chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is composed of two different subunits, GapA and GapB. cDNA clones containing the entire coding sequences of the cytosolic precursors for GapA from pea and for GapB from pea and spinach have been identified, sequenced and the derived amino acid sequences have been compared to the corresponding sequences from tobacco, maize and mustard. These comparisons show that GapB differs from GapA in about 20% of its amino acid residues and by the presence of a flexible and negatively charged C-terminal extension, possibly responsible for the observed association of the enzyme with chloroplast envelopes in vitro. This C-terminal extension (29 or 30 residues) may be susceptible to proteolytic cleavage thereby leading to a conversion of chloroplast GAPDH isoenzyme I into isoenzyme II. Evolutionary rate comparisons at the amino acid sequence level show that chloroplast GapA and GapB evolve roughly two-fold slower than their cytosolic counterpart GapC. GapA and GapB transit peptides evolve about 10 times faster than the corresponding mature subunits. They are relatively long (68 and 83 residues for pea GapA and spinach GapB respectively) and share a similar amino acid framework with other chloroplast transit peptides

    LRP1 Receptor Controls Adipogenesis and Is Up-Regulated In Human and Mouse Obese Adipose Tissue

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    The cell surface low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, plays a major role in lipid metabolism. The question that remains open concerns the function of LRP1 in adipogenesis. Here, we show that LRP1 is highly expressed in murine preadipocytes as well as in primary culture of human adipocytes. Moreover, LRP1 remains abundantly synthesised during mouse and human adipocyte differentiation. We demonstrate that LRP1 silencing in 3T3F442A murine preadipocytes significantly inhibits the expression of PPARÎł, HSL and aP2 adipocyte differentiation markers after adipogenesis induction, and leads to lipid-depleted cells. We further show that the absence of lipids in LRP1-silenced preadipocytes is not caused by lipolysis induction. In addition, we provide the first evidences that LRP1 is significantly up-regulated in obese C57BI6/J mouse adipocytes and obese human adipose tissues. Interestingly, silencing of LRP1 in fully-differentiated adipocytes also reduces cellular lipid level and is associated with an increase of basal lipolysis. However, the ability of mature adipocytes to induce lipolysis is independent of LRP1 expression. Altogether, our findings highlight the dual role of LRP1 in the control of adipogenesis and lipid homeostasis, and suggest that LRP1 may be an important therapeutic target in obesity

    Para que servem os inventĂĄrios de fauna?

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    InventĂĄrios de fauna acessam diretamente a diversidade de uma localidade, em um determinado espaço e tempo. Os dados primĂĄrios gerados pelos inventĂĄrios compĂ”em uma das ferramentas mais importantes na tomada de decisĂ”es a respeito do manejo de ĂĄreas naturais. Entretanto, vĂĄrios problemas tĂȘm sido observados em diversos nĂ­veis relacionados aos inventĂĄrios de fauna no Brasil e vĂŁo desde a formação de recursos humanos atĂ© a ausĂȘncia de padronização, de desenho experimental e de seleção de mĂ©todos inadequados. SĂŁo apresentados estudos de caso com mamĂ­feros, rĂ©pteis, anfĂ­bios e peixes, nos quais sĂŁo discutidos problemas como variabilidade temporal e mĂ©todos para detecção de fauna terrestre, sugerindo que tanto os inventĂĄrios quanto os programas de monitoramento devam se estender por prazos maiores e que os inventĂĄrios devem incluir diferentes metodologias para que os seus objetivos sejam plenamente alcançados.Inventories of fauna directly access the diversity of a locality in a certain period of time. The primary data generated by these inventories comprise one of the most important steps in decisions making regarding the management of natural areas. However, several problems have been observed at different levels related to inventories of fauna in Brazil, and range from the training of humans to the lack of standardization of experimental design and selection of inappropriate methods. We present case studies of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, where they discussed issues such temporal variability and methods for detection of terrestrial fauna, suggesting that both inventories and monitoring programs should be extended for longer terms and that inventories should include different methodologies to ensure that their goals are fully achieved

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector