13 research outputs found

    The forgotten legacy: oil heritage sites in Iran

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    During the rapid process of deindustrialization in Iran, the term ‚Äėindustrial heritage‚Äô has recently emerged as a new subject into public realm. In order to integrate the methodologies for the protection and adaptive reuse strategies, the ‚Äėindustrial heritage‚Äô itself needs to be divided into various categories. UNESCO has begun inscribing increasing numbers of local industrial legacies such as railway, mines, factories, assembly plants, agricultural production and manufacturing production in its World Heritage List. However, in the process of their adaptive reuse the question of heritage meanings arises. Over the past century in Iran, powerful corporate and governmental actors have created a broad range of oil imaginaries that changed over time and in line with local cultures. Starting from 1920s and after the nationalization of oil industry in Iran, oil cities such as Abadan and Masjid Suleiman saw massive expansion to house labors and oil-industry specialists who had arrived from the United States, Europe, India, and the Persian Gulf states. This research aims to clarify how the oil industry, in close collaboration with national governments, has materially shaped the oil cities through oil-specific architecture like company headquarters, gas stations, retail and infrastructure buildings. The current legacy of oil industry continues to reshape the industry, society and politics as well. This research uses a critical and analytical problem-based approach to examine the current policies that build a new image and identity through adaptive reuse strategies to promote sustainable local development in Iran‚Äôs industrial heritage

    Defining urban green infrastructure role in analysis of climate resiliency in cities based on landscape ecology theories

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    Cities are exposed to the risk of climate change and as a result, are very vulnerable. In recent years, to face the challenges caused by the climate change, the notion of climate resilience and specifically, urban ecological resilience, has been studied. Climate resilience is in focus of this paper and a subcategory of urban ecological resilience, which is defined as the urban resilience to the climate change. Also, urban green infrastructure has an established role as one of the strategies for adapting to climate change and for developing and promoting climate resilience in cities. Given the theoretical gap existing in this field, this question arises: "How and based on which features of the green infrastructure can we assess and analyze the climate resilience in a city?‚ÄĚ To answer this question, the landscape ecology principles and relationship between these principles and the green infrastructure in the cities were used. The relationship was developed in the Yousef Abad neighborhood of Tehran and was qualitatively tested using the aerial images, field surveys and preparation of basic and analytical GIS maps. Finally, the "effective factors in assessing the climate resilience in cities using the urban green infrastructures based on landscape ecology" were obtained

    Cooperation of ordinary citizens with urban management in the third wave of Covid-19 outbreak in Iran

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    In response to the Covid-19 outbreak, nations worldwide imposed various restrictions on their citizens in an attempt to stem its spread. One underlying aspect of the success of these policies is people\u27s adaptation to epidemics and their continuous cooperation with urban management to adhere to precautionary measures. Otherwise, the disease incidence and death rates in the countries will not decrease. The situation that has occurred in Iran since the beginning of September and a sudden rise has put this country at the top of the daily reported deaths of Covid-19 (in proportion to the population) in October and November. Thus, this study will focus on two important Iranian metropolises (Tehran and Karaj) to understand: 1) What is the level of citizens’ cooperation in complying with Covid-19-related precautionary measures? 2) How has the level of citizens\u27 precautionary behaviors changed compared to the early days of the outbreak? 3) Is there a correlative relationship between citizens\u27 personal and socioeconomic characteristics and their level of cooperation in this period? This cross-sectional study is based on online surveys (completion of 667 online questionnaires by ordinary citizens living in Tehran and Karaj). Findings show the participation of 30.3% in implementing all precautionary measures, with women, high-income groups, unemployed people, and those without a history of Covid-19 infection having a higher odds ratio than others. In terms of citizens\u27 behavior, 21% have reduced their level of cooperation in this area, which is correlated with their personal and socioeconomic characteristics (except their city of residence)

    Regenerating the historical axes of Isfahan, using urban design dimensions to make places for people (The Case Study of Joibareh Neighbourhood)

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    AbstractUrban design in the old city of Isfahan is also looking to realize the principles governing the foundation of the city, so that the particular mode of its formation as an example for the referral patterns of urban design. The main objective of this study is considered making cherished public places, to achieve this important, after introduction of one of the historical axis of old Isfahan, began to understand the organization of environmental quality and it is analyzed. Finally strategies presented in order to maintaining, creation and strengthen the principles governing the formation of urban spaces in other axes

    Explorant la satisfacció de la qualitat de vida als teixits històrics de l’Iran a través de models d’aprenentatge automatic

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    Els centres històrics de les ciutats sovint queden fora del procés de desenvolupament urbà, especialment quan el creixement de la població és molt ràpid. Per tant, s’enfronten a greus dificultats que afecten la qualitat de vida (CV) dels residents. Una CV adequada és essencial per ancorar la població local en aquestes valuoses àrees històriques. Mantenir les seves formes de vida tradicionals és fonamental per preservar-ne la herència, però gairebé no s’ha fet un estudi exhaustiu sobre el tema a l’Iran. Per abordar aquesta deficiència, es va dur a terme una anàlisi multivariable basada en una enquesta que va comptar amb la participació de més de 1.800 habitants dels centres de les ciutats antigues de Yazd, Ardakan, Naeen i Kashan. La CV (variable dependent) es va relacionar amb 21 variables independents, que comprenen una àmplia gamma d’aspectes físics, socials, econòmics, ambientals i institucionals, seleccionades a partir d’una revisió exhaustiva de la literatura teòrica. Per descobrir els patrons subjacents a les dades recopilades, es van examinar diversos algorismes paramètrics i no paramètrics com CHAID, regressió logística, NEURAL NET, C5.0 i C&R Tree. El model C5.0 va mostrar la més alta precisió general i es va utilitzar per seleccionar els millors predictors de la satisfacció de CV per als residents d'aquestes àrees de la ciutat: 1) qualitat d'edificis i carrers, 2) seguretat i protecció, 3) serveis administratius i 4) accessibilitat vehicular. El coneixement recopilat hauria d'ajudar els responsables de la presa de decisions i els planificadors iranians a desenvolupar plans integrals de regeneració per a les àrees històriques de les ciutats i incorporar-hi millor els aspectes de sostenibilitat social.Historical city centres are quite often left out of the urban development process, especially when population growth is very rapid. Therefore, they are confronted with severe difficulties affecting the quality of life (QOL) of their residents. An adequate QOL is essential to anchor the local population in these valuable historical areas. Keeping their traditional ways of life is critical to preserve their heritage, but almost no comprehensive study has been done on the subject in Iran. To address this deficiency, a multivariable analysis was carried out based on an extensive survey that counted with the participation of more than 1800 inhabitants of the old city centres of Yazd, Ardakan, Naeen and Kashan. The QOL (dependent variable) was related to 21 independent variables, covering a wide range of physical, social, economic, environmental, and institutional aspects, selected from a thorough review of the theoretical literature. To discover the patterns underlying the collected data, several different parametric and non-parametric algorithms such as CHAID, Logistic Regression, NEURAL NET, C5.0 and C&R Tree have been examined. The C5.0 model showed the highest overall accuracy and was used to select the best predictors of QOL satisfaction for the residents of these city areas: 1) quality of buildings and streets, 2) safety and security, 3) administrative services and 4) vehicle accessibility. The knowledge gathered should assist Iranian decision-makers and planners develop comprehensive regeneration plans for historical city areas and better incorporate social sustainability aspects.Los centros históricos de las ciudades a menudo quedan fuera del proceso de desarrollo urbano, especialmente cuando el crecimiento de la población es muy rápido. Por lo tanto, se enfrentan a graves dificultades que afectan la calidad de vida (CV) de sus residentes. Una CV adecuada es esencial para anclar a la población local en estas valiosas áreas históricas. Mantener sus formas de vida tradicionales es fundamental para preservar su herencia, pero casi no se ha realizado un estudio exhaustivo sobre el tema en Irán. Para abordar esta deficiencia, se llevó a cabo un análisis multivariable basado en una encuesta que contó con la participación de más de 1.800 habitantes de los centros de las ciudades antiguas de Yazd, Ardakan, Naeen y Kashan. La CV (variable dependiente) se relacionó con 21 variables independientes, que abarcan una amplia gama de aspectos físicos, sociales, económicos, ambientales e institucionales, seleccionadas a partir de una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura teórica. Para descubrir los patrones subyacentes a los datos recopilados, se examinaron varios algoritmos paramétricos y no paramétricos como CHAID, regresión logística, NEURAL NET, C5.0 y C&R Tree. El modelo C5.0 mostró la precisión general más alta y se utilizó para seleccionar los mejores predictores de la satisfacción de CV para los residentes de estas áreas de la ciudad: 1) calidad de edificios y calles, 2) seguridad y protección, 3) servicios administrativos y 4) accesibilidad vehicular. El conocimiento recopilado debería ayudar a los responsables de la toma de decisiones y los planificadores iraníes a desarrollar planes integrales de regeneración para las áreas históricas de las ciudades e incorporar mejor los aspectos de sostenibilidad social.We are highly grateful to the editors and anonymous reviewers for their time and constructive comments on our manuscript.Peer Reviewe

    Utilitarian and hedonic walking: examining the impact of the built environment on walking behavior

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    Abstract Introduction Most previous studies have mainly focused on utilitarian or recreational walking and discussed their relationship with the built environment. The point is that most of these studies have not been sensitive to the motivation of trips while travel is a complicated behavior and individuals may have different degrees of motivation and utility for a given trip purpose. Accordingly, because of different utilities of travel, it is more likely that the built environment differently affects walking behavior. Purpose This paper aims to clearly distinguish between utilitarian and hedonic walking and then explores how the built environment influences walking behavior. Method Using data collected from 863 respondents in six diverse neighborhoods in Isfahan, Iran, we developed negative binomial models for two types of walking; namely, utilitarian and hedonic walking. Results The results reveal some interesting insights: first, both models of walking confirm that neighborhood preferences do not play any important role in explaining walking behavior in our context, inconsistent with previous studies. Second, the objective and perceived built environment factors differently contribute to explaining both types of walking. In this regard, utilitarian walking is affected by mixed land use, residential density, facility accessibility, attractiveness, and walking infrastructure; and hedonic walking is influenced by mixed land use, attractiveness and safety. Third, attitudinal factors and socio-demographic variables also differently appear in the models of walking. Conclusion The results confirm that it is essential to be more sensitive to the motivation of trips, and suggest a clear policy implication: the individuals’ reactions toward policies intended to increase walking frequency depend partly on the utility for walking

    A Framework for Urban Flood Resilience Assessment with Emphasis on Social, Economic and Institutional Dimensions: A Qualitative Study

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    In recent years, the effects of climate change have become more noticeable in Iran, especially in big cities. In particular, climate-related flood risk is increasingly recognized as a potential threat in the capital city of Tehran. Accordingly, the present study aimed to provide a framework/assessment tool to measure Tehran’s resilience to flood risks. To this end, 21 professionals from different disciplines were selected through a purposive sampling procedure and were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The analysis procedure resulted in the identification of 3 themes, 15 categories, 40 subcategories, and 235 codes. The themes were social, economic, and organizational; The identified categories were culture and education (since culture is something to be learned through formal and informal education this component has two features: culture and education), participation, trust, attitude, solidarity, resources, empowerment, flexibility, credit, supervision, intercommunication, rules, specialization, and research. Validation of the indicators and their usability based on the opinions of local experts was used to calibrate the assessment tool and ensure its context-sensitivity. The results of this research can help planners and policymakers to increase their awareness of flood resilience. The approach taken in this research may also be useful for developing flood resilience assessment tools in other Iranian cities as well as in other cities of the Global South with similar conditions
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