726 research outputs found

    Drugs and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia risk: results from the DARE study cohort.

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    OBJECTIVES: To establish a unique sample of proarrhythmia cases, determine the characteristics of cases and estimate the contribution of individual drugs to the incidence of proarrhythmia within these cases. SETTING: Suspected proarrhythmia cases were referred by cardiologists across England between 2003 and 2011. Information on demography, symptoms, prior medical and drug histories and data from hospital notes were collected. PARTICIPANTS: Two expert cardiologists reviewed data for 293 referred cases: 130 were included. Inclusion criteria were new onset or exacerbation of pre-existing ventricular arrhythmias, QTc >500 ms, QTc >450 ms (men) or >470 ms (women) with cardiac syncope, all secondary to drug administration. Exclusion criteria were acute ischaemia and ischaemic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia at presentation, structural heart disease, consent withdrawn or deceased prior to study. Descriptive analysis of Caucasian cases (95% of included cases, n=124) and culpable drug exposures was performed. RESULTS: Of the 124 Caucasian cases, 95 (77%) were QTc interval prolongation-related; mean age was 62 years (SD 15), and 63% were female. Cardiovascular comorbidities included hypertension (53%) and patient-reported 'heart rhythm problems' (73%). Family history of sudden death (36%) and hypokalaemia at presentation (27%) were common. 165 culpable drug exposures were reported, including antiarrhythmics (42%), of which amiodarone and flecainide were the most common. Sotalol, a beta-blocking agent with antiarrhythmic activity, was also common (15%). 26% reported multiple drugs, of which 84% reported at least one cytochrome (CYP) P450 inhibitor. Potential pharmacodynamics interactions identified were mainly QT prolongation (59%). CONCLUSIONS: Antiarrhythmics, non-cardiac drugs and drug combinations were found to be culpable in a large cohort of 124 clinically validated proarrhythmia cases. Potential clinical factors that may warn the prescriber of potential proarrhythmia include older women, underlying cardiovascular comorbidity, family history of sudden death and hypokalaemia

    Importance of Variant Interpretation in Whole-Exome Molecular Autopsy: Population-Based Case Series.

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    BACKGROUND: Potentially lethal cardiac channelopathies/cardiomyopathies may underlie a substantial portion of sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY). The whole-exome molecular autopsy represents the latest approach to postmortem genetic testing for SUDY. However, proper variant adjudication in the setting of SUDY can be challenging. METHODS: From January 2012 through December 2013, 25 consecutive cases of SUDY from 1 to 40 years of age (average age at death 27±5.7 years; 13 white, 12 black) from Cook County, Illinois, were referred after a negative (n=16) or equivocal (n=9) conventional autopsy. A whole-exome molecular autopsy with analysis of 99 sudden death-susceptibility genes was performed. The predicted pathogenicity of ultrarare, nonsynonymous variants was determined using the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, 27 ultrarare nonsynonymous variants were seen in 16/25 (64%) victims of SUDY. Among black individuals, 9/12 (75%) had an ultrarare nonsynonymous variant compared with 7/13 (54%) white individuals. Of the 27 variants, 10 were considered pathogenic or likely pathogenic in 7/25 (28%) individuals in accordance with the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 5/16 (31%) of autopsy-negative cases and in 2/6 (33%) victims of SUDY with equivocal findings of cardiomyopathy. Overall, 6 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in 4/25 (16%) cases were congruent with the phenotypic findings at autopsy and therefore considered clinically actionable. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-exome molecular autopsy with gene-specific surveillance is an effective approach for the detection of potential pathogenic variants in SUDY cases. However, systematic variant adjudication is crucial to ensure accurate and proper care for surviving family members

    Cardiac arrest as first presentation of arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy due to Filamin C mutation: a case report

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    Background Arrhythmogenic left ventricular cardiomyopathy (ALVC) is a rare form of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy characterized by fibrofatty replacement of left ventricular myocardium, malignant arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. The definition incorporates several genetic causes, including pathogenic variation in the Filamin C gene (FLNC). Although awareness of ALVC has improved, identification remains challenging and diagnostic criteria continue to evolve. Case summary A 50-year-old athletic male was admitted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) whilst playing football. Coronary angiography revealed unobstructed epicardial vessels and the diagnosis of ALVC was suggested by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated a mildly dilated and moderately impaired left ventricle with epicardial late gadolinium enhancement in the basal to mid-lateral walls and subendocardial septum. Initial testing with a cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia gene panel was negative but extended testing uncovered a likely pathogenic variant in FLNC. Subsequently, the patient experienced a recurrence of sustained VT necessitating implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies, ultimately undergoing a combined epicardial and endocardial VT ablation 4 years after presentation. Six months post-ablation, he was asymptomatic and his arrhythmia rendered quiescent. Discussion Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy should be considered in the evaluation of an initially unexplained cardiac arrest. This case characterizes the clinical features of a patient with FLNC cardiomyopathy and emphasizes the utility of genetic testing using modern gene panels in patients with comparable phenotypes. We also demonstrate that optimal medical therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs, exercise restriction, ICD insertion, and catheter ablation can be useful in the management of ALVC with positive outcomes

    Novel Characteristics of Valveless Pumping

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    This study investigates the occurrence of valveless pumping in a fluidfilled system consisting of two open tanks connected by an elastic tube. We show that directional flow can be achieved by introducing a periodic pinching applied at an asymmetrical location along the tube, and that the flow direction depends on the pumping frequency. We propose a relation between wave propagation velocity, tube length, and resonance frequencies associated with shifts in the pumping direction using numerical simulations. The eigenfrequencies of the system are estimated from the linearized system, and we show that these eigenfrequencies constitute the resonance frequencies and the horizontal slope frequencies of the system; 'horizontal slope frequency' being a new concept. A simple model is suggested, explaining the effect of the gravity driven part of the oscillation observed in response to the tank and tube diameter changes. Results are partly compared with experimental findings.Art. no. 22450

    Diagnostic Yield of Genetic Testing in Young Athletes with T-wave Inversion.

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    Background -T-wave inversion (TWI) is common in patients with cardiomyopathy. However, up to 25% of athletes of African/Afro-Caribbean descent (black athletes) and 5% of white athletes also have TWI of unclear clinical significance despite comprehensive clinical evaluation and long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield from genetic testing, beyond clinical evaluation, when investigating athletes with TWI. Methods -We investigated 50 consecutive asymptomatic black and 50 white athletes aged 14-35-years-old with TWI and a normal echocardiogram who were referred to a UK tertiary center for cardiomyopathy and sports cardiology. Subjects underwent exercise testing, 24-hour ECG, signal-averaged ECG, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and a blood-based analysis of a comprehensive 311 gene panel for cardiomyopathies including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, left ventricular non-compaction, and ion channel disorders such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Results -In total, 21 athletes (21%) were diagnosed with cardiac disease on the basis of comprehensive clinical investigations. Of these, 8 (38.1%) were gene positive (MYPBC3, MYH7, GLA, and ACTC1 genes) and 13 (61.9%) were gene negative. Of the remaining 79 athletes (79%), 2 (2.5%) were gene positive (TTR and SCN5A genes) in the absence of a clinical phenotype. The prevalence of newly diagnosed cardiomyopathy was higher in white athletes compared with black athletes (30.0% vs. 12%, P=0.027). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy accounted for 90.5% of all clinical diagnoses. All black athletes and 93.3% of white athletes with a clinical diagnosis of cardiomyopathy or a genetic mutation capable of causing cardiomyopathy exhibited lateral TWI as opposed to isolated anterior or inferior TWI; the genetic yield of diagnoses from lateral TWI was 14.0%. Conclusions -Up to 10% of athletes with TWI revealed mutations capable of causing cardiac disease. Despite the substantial cost, the positive diagnostic yield from genetic testing was one-half of that from clinical evaluation (10% vs. 21%) and contributed to additional diagnoses in only 2.5% of athletes with TWI in the absence of a clear clinical phenotype, making it of negligible use in routine clinical practice