259 research outputs found

    Mouse models for hereditary spastic paraplegia uncover a role of PI4K2A in autophagic lysosome reformation

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    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) denotes genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by leg spasticity due to degeneration of corticospinal axons. SPG11 and SPG15 have a similar clinical course and together are the most prevalent autosomal recessive HSP entity. The respective proteins play a role for macroautophagy/autophagy and autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR). Here, we report that spg11 and zfyve26 KO mice developed motor impairments within the same course of time. This correlated with enhanced accumulation of autofluorescent material in neurons and progressive neuron loss. In agreement with defective ALR, tubulation events were diminished in starved KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and lysosomes decreased in neurons of KO brain sections. Confirming that both proteins act in the same molecular pathway, the pathologies were not aggravated upon simultaneous disruption of both. We further show that PI4K2A (phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpha), which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), accumulated in autofluorescent deposits isolated from KO but not WT brains. Elevated PI4K2A abundance was already found at autolysosomes of neurons of presymptomatic KO mice. Immunolabelings further suggested higher levels of PtdIns4P at LAMP1-positive structures in starved KO MEFs. An increased association with LAMP1-positive structures was also observed for clathrin and DNM2/dynamin 2, which are important effectors of ALR recruited by phospholipids. Because PI4K2A overexpression impaired ALR, while its knockdown increased tubulation, we conclude that PI4K2A modulates phosphoinositide levels at autolysosomes and thus the recruitment of downstream effectors of ALR. Therefore, PI4K2A may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SPG11 and SPG15. Abbreviations: ALR: autophagic lysosome reformation; AP-5: adaptor protein complex 5; BFP: blue fluorescent protein; dKO: double knockout; EBSS: Earle’s balanced salt solution; FBA: foot base angle; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HSP: hereditary spastic paraplegia; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; PI4K2A: phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpha; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PtdIns4P: phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SPG: spastic paraplegia gene; TGN: trans-Golgi network; WT: wild typ

    Attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy by G-CSF is associated with enhanced migration of bone marrow-derived cells

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    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to promote mobilization of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMCs) into the bloodstream associated with improved survival and cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether G-CSF is able to attenuate cardiac remodelling in a mouse model of pressure-induced LV hypertrophy focusing on mobilization and migration of BMCs. LV hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6J mice. Fourweeks after TAC procedure. Mice were treated with G-CSF (100g/kg/day;Amgen Biologicals) for 2weeks. The number of migrated BMCs in the heart was analysed by flow cytometry. mRNA expression and protein level of different growth factors in the myocardium were investigated by RT-PCR and ELISA. Functional analyses assessed by echocardiography and immunohistochemical analysis were performed 8weeks after TAC procedure. G-CSF-treated animals revealed enhanced homing of VLA-4(+) and c-kit(+) BMCs associated with increased mRNA expression and protein level of the corresponding homing factors Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 and Stem cell factor in the hypertrophic myocardium. Functionally, G-CSF significantly preserved LV function after TAC procedure, which was associated with a significantly reduced area of fibrosis compared to control animals. Furthermore, G-CSF-treated animals revealed a significant improvement of survival after TAC procedure. In summary, G-CSF treatment preserves cardiac function and is able to diminish cardiac fibrosis after induction of LV hypertrophy associated with increased homing of VLA-4(+) and c-kit(+) BMCs and enhanced expression of their respective homing factors VCAM-1 and SCF

    GGPS1-associated muscular dystrophy with and without hearing loss

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    Ultra-rare biallelic pathogenic variants in geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPS1) have recently been associated with muscular dystrophy/hearing loss/ovarian insufficiency syndrome. Here, we describe 11 affected individuals from four unpublished families with ultra-rare missense variants in GGPS1 and provide follow-up details from a previously reported family. Our cohort replicated most of the previously described clinical features of GGPS1 deficiency; however, hearing loss was present in only 46% of the individuals. This report consolidates the disease-causing role of biallelic variants in GGPS1 and demonstrates that hearing loss and ovarian insufficiency might be a variable feature of the GGPS1-associated muscular dystrophy

    Microfiber-microcavity system for efficient single photon collection

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    Funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant (MSIP) (NRF-2007-341-C00018, NRF-2014M3C1A3052567); State of Bavaria.Single photon sources are key components for various quantum information processing. For practical quantum applications, bright single photon sources with efficient fiber-optical interfaces are highly required. Here, bright fiber-coupled single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots are demonstrated through the k-vector matching between a microfiber mode and a normal mode of the linear photonic crystal cavity. One of the modes of the linear photonic crystal cavity whose k-vector is similar to that of the microfiber mode is employed. From independent transmission measurement, the coupling efficiency directly into the fiber of 58% is obtained. When the quantum dot and cavity system is non-resonantly pumped with 80 MHz pulse train, a raw count rate of 1.81 MHz is obtained with g(2)(0) = 0.46. Resonant pump is expected to improve the rather high g(2)(0) value. Time-resolved photoluminescence is also measured to confirm the three-fold Purcell enhancement. This system provides a promising route for efficient direct fiber collections of single photons for quantum information processing.PostprintPeer reviewe

    ADAMTS19-associated heart valve defects: Novel genetic variants consolidating a recognizable cardiac phenotype

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    Recently, ADAMTS19 was identified as a novel causative gene for autosomal recessive heart valve disease (HVD), affecting mainly the aortic and pulmonary valves. Exome sequencing and data repository (CentoMD) analyses were performed to identify patients with ADAMTS19 variants (two families). A third family was recognized based on cardiac phenotypic similarities and SNP array homozygosity. Three novel loss of function (LoF) variants were identified in six patients from three families. Clinically, all patients presented anomalies of the aortic/pulmonary valves, which included thickening of valve leaflets, stenosis and insufficiency. Three patients had (recurrent) subaortic membrane, suggesting that ADAMTS19 is the first gene identified related to discrete subaortic stenosis. One case presented a bi-commissural pulmonary valve. All patients displayed some degree of atrioventricular valve insufficiency. Other cardiac anomalies included atrial/ventricular septal defects, persistent ductus arteriosus, and mild dilated ascending aorta. Our findings confirm that biallelic LoF variants in ADAMTS19 are causative of a specific and recognizable cardiac phenotype. We recommend considering ADAMTS19 genetic testing in all patients with multiple semilunar valve abnormalities, particularly in the presence of subaortic membrane. ADAMTS19 screening in patients with semilunar valve abnormalities is needed to estimate the frequency of the HVD related phenotype, which might be not so rare

    Infliximab Induces Clonal Expansion of γδ-T Cells in Crohn's Disease: A Predictor of Lymphoma Risk?

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    BACKGROUND: Concominant with the widespread use of combined immunotherapy in the management of Crohn's disease (CD), the incidence of hepato-splenic gamma-delta (γδ)-T cell lymphoma has increased sharply in CD patients. Malignant transformation of lymphocytes is believed to be a multistep process resulting in the selection of malignant γδ-T cell clones. We hypothesised that repeated infusion of anti-TNF-α agents may induce clonal selection and that concurrent treatment with immunomodulators further predisposes patients to γδ-T cell expansion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated dynamic changes in the γδ-T cells of patient with CD following treatment with infliximab (Remicade®; n=20) or adalimumab (Humira®; n=26) using flow cytometry. In patients with a high γδ-T cell level, the γδ-T cells were assessed for clonality. Of these 46 CD patients, 35 had a γδ-T cells level (mean 1.6%) comparable to healthy individuals (mean 2.2%), and 11 CD patients (24%) exhibited an increased level of γδ-T cells (5-15%). In the 18 patients also receiving thiopurines or methotrexate, the average baseline γδ-T cell level was 4.4%. In three male CD patients with a high baseline value, the γδ-T cell population increased dramatically following infliximab therapy. A fourth male patient also on infliximab monotherapy presented with 20% γδ-T cells, which increased to 25% shortly after treatment and was 36% between infusions. Clonality studies revealed an oligoclonal γδ-T cell pattern with dominant γδ-T cell clones. In support of our clinical findings, in vitro experiments showed a dose-dependent proliferative effect of anti-TNF-α agents on γδ-T cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CD patients treated with immunomodulators had constitutively high levels of γδ-T cells. Infliximab exacerbated clonal γδ-T cell expansion in vivo and induced γδ-T cell proliferation in vitro. Overall, young, male CD patients with high baseline γδ-T cell levels may be at an increased risk of developing malignant γδ-T cell lymphomas following treatment with anti-TNF-α agents