654 research outputs found

    Evaluation of the Effect of 1,3-Bis(4-Phenyl)-1H-1,2,3- Triazolyl-2-Propanolol on Gene Expression Levels of JAK2鈥揝TAT3, NF-jB, and SOCS3 in Cells Cultured from Biopsies of Mammary Lesions

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    El presente art铆culo es el resultado de la evaluaci贸n del efecto de un bistriazol mediante la expresi贸n g茅nica de JAK2, STAT3, SOCS3 y NF-魏B, v铆as involucradas en lesiones benignas de mama posiblemente dependiente del 铆ndice de masa corporal, dando as铆 una relaci贸n entre el c谩ncer y obesidad. En este estudio se calcul贸 la concentraci贸n inhibitoria 50 del bistriazol en cultivos celulares de pacientes con lesi贸n benigna (Probit = 4.6 渭M con IC= 95 %). En 63 mujeres que acudieron a realizarse biopsia en el Hospital Materno Perinatal "M贸nica Pretellini S谩enz", 21 fueron con c谩ncer, se les tomaron medidas antropom茅tricas y biopsia de la lesi贸n en mama, en la cual se determin贸 expresi贸n g茅nica y se realiz贸 cultivo celular con el bistriazol a la concentraci贸n de 4.6 渭M. Se encontr贸 que el c谩ncer de mama est谩 relacionado con edad mayor de 50 a帽os (P鈮 0.01), sobrepeso (P鈮 0.023) y circunferencia cintura mayor de 80 cm (P鈮 0.01). La expresi贸n g茅nica de JAK2, STAT3 y NF-魏B fue mayor en el grupo de pacientes con c谩ncer en cuanto que SOCS3 result贸 ser menor. La expresi贸n despu茅s de haber sido sometida al bistriazol, disminuy贸 la expresi贸n de JAK2 y STAT3, aument贸 la expresi贸n de SOCS3 y de NF-魏B. Se concluye que esta mol茅cula en desarrollo tiene efecto en la expresi贸n g茅nica de JAK2 y STAT3. Sin embargo, la v铆a de expresi贸n NF-魏B no esta marcadamente involucrada en la regulaci贸n de la inflamaci贸n.Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in women and is responsible for approximately 13.8% of deaths per year for this gender. It has been suggested that JAK2, STAT3, and NF-魏B gene expression is involved in this type of cancer. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of bistriazole in these signaling pathways in patients with breast cancer and benign mammary lesions. The inhibitory concentration 50 of bistriazole was calculated in cell cultures of patients with benign lesions, Probit = 4.6 渭M with IC = 95%. The study was performed by examining 63 women who submitted to mammary biopsies. Biopsies of the mammary lesions were performed, gene expression was determined, and cells were cultured in the presence of 4.6 渭M bistriazole. We found that breast cancer is related to age greater than 50 (P 鈮 0.01), being overweight (P 鈮 0.023) and having a waist circumference larger than 80 cm (P 鈮 0.01). The gene expression of JAK2, STAT3, and NF-魏B was higher in groups of patients with breast cancer, while SOCS3 expression was lower. After being exposed to bistriazole, the expression of JAK2 and STAT3 decreased, and the expression of SOCS3 and NF-魏B increased. In conclusion, this molecule in development has an effect on the gene expression of JAK3 and STAT3; nevertheless, the lack of change in NF-魏B indicates that it is not a regulator of inflammation, and therefore, more studies should be performed

    The CMS Phase-1 pixel detector upgrade

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    The CMS detector at the CERN LHC features a silicon pixel detector as its innermost subdetector. The original CMS pixel detector has been replaced with an upgraded pixel system (CMS Phase-1 pixel detector) in the extended year-end technical stop of the LHC in 2016/2017. The upgraded CMS pixel detector is designed to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosities that have been achieved by the LHC after the upgrades to the accelerator during the first long shutdown in 2013鈥2014. Compared to the original pixel detector, the upgraded detector has a better tracking performance and lower mass with four barrel layers and three endcap disks on each side to provide hit coverage up to an absolute value of pseudorapidity of 2.5. This paper describes the design and construction of the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector as well as its performance from commissioning to early operation in collision data-taking.Peer reviewe

    Selection of the silicon sensor thickness for the Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker

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    During the operation of the CMS experiment at the High-Luminosity LHC the silicon sensors of the Phase-2 Outer Tracker will be exposed to radiation levels that could potentially deteriorate their performance. Previous studies had determined that planar float zone silicon with n-doped strips on a p-doped substrate was preferred over p-doped strips on an n-doped substrate. The last step in evaluating the optimal design for the mass production of about 200 m2^{2} of silicon sensors was to compare sensors of baseline thickness (about 300 渭m) to thinned sensors (about 240 渭m), which promised several benefits at high radiation levels because of the higher electric fields at the same bias voltage. This study provides a direct comparison of these two thicknesses in terms of sensor characteristics as well as charge collection and hit efficiency for fluences up to 1.5 脳 1015^{15} neq_{eq}/cm2^{2}. The measurement results demonstrate that sensors with about 300 渭m thickness will ensure excellent tracking performance even at the highest considered fluence levels expected for the Phase-2 Outer Tracker

    Comparative evaluation of analogue front-end designs for the CMS Inner Tracker at the High Luminosity LHC

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    The CMS Inner Tracker, made of silicon pixel modules, will be entirely replaced prior to the start of the High Luminosity LHC period. One of the crucial components of the new Inner Tracker system is the readout chip, being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, and in particular its analogue front-end, which receives the signal from the sensor and digitizes it. Three different analogue front-ends (Synchronous, Linear, and Differential) were designed and implemented in the RD53A demonstrator chip. A dedicated evaluation program was carried out to select the most suitable design to build a radiation tolerant pixel detector able to sustain high particle rates with high efficiency and a small fraction of spurious pixel hits. The test results showed that all three analogue front-ends presented strong points, but also limitations. The Differential front-end demonstrated very low noise, but the threshold tuning became problematic after irradiation. Moreover, a saturation in the preamplifier feedback loop affected the return of the signal to baseline and thus increased the dead time. The Synchronous front-end showed very good timing performance, but also higher noise. For the Linear front-end all of the parameters were within specification, although this design had the largest time walk. This limitation was addressed and mitigated in an improved design. The analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the three front-ends in the context of the CMS Inner Tracker operation requirements led to the selection of the improved design Linear front-end for integration in the final CMS readout chip

    Observation of the Production of Three Massive Gauge Bosons at root s=13 TeV