1,464 research outputs found

    The 2HWC HAWC Observatory Gamma Ray Catalog

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    We present the first catalog of TeV gamma-ray sources realized with the recently completed High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC). It is the most sensitive wide field-of-view TeV telescope currently in operation, with a 1-year survey sensitivity of ~5-10% of the flux of the Crab Nebula. With an instantaneous field of view >1.5 sr and >90% duty cycle, it continuously surveys and monitors the sky for gamma ray energies between hundreds GeV and tens of TeV. HAWC is located in Mexico at a latitude of 19 degree North and was completed in March 2015. Here, we present the 2HWC catalog, which is the result of the first source search realized with the complete HAWC detector. Realized with 507 days of data and represents the most sensitive TeV survey to date for such a large fraction of the sky. A total of 39 sources were detected, with an expected contamination of 0.5 due to background fluctuation. Out of these sources, 16 are more than one degree away from any previously reported TeV source. The source list, including the position measurement, spectrum measurement, and uncertainties, is reported. Seven of the detected sources may be associated with pulsar wind nebulae, two with supernova remnants, two with blazars, and the remaining 23 have no firm identification yet.Comment: Submitted 2017/02/09 to the Astrophysical Journa

    Serum nucleosomes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Predictive and prognostic significance

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    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that free DNA circulates in serum plasma of patients with cancer and that at least part is present in the form of oligo- and monucleosomes, a marker of cell death. Preliminary data has shown a good correlation between decrease of nucleosomes with response and prognosis. Here, we performed pre- and post-chemotherapy determinations of serum nucleosomes with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in a group of patients with cervical cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: From December 2000 to June 2001, 41 patients with cervical cancer staged as FIGO stages IB2-IIIB received three 21-day courses of carboplatin and paclitaxel, both administered at day 1; then, patients underwent radical hysterectomy. Nucleosomes were measured the day before (baseline), at day seven of the first course and day seven of the third course of chemotherapy. Values of nucleosomes were analyzed with regard to pathologic response and to time to progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS: All patients completed chemotherapy, were evaluable for pathologic response, and had nucleosome levels determined. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 7–26 months), projected progression time and overall survival were 80.3 and 80.4%, respectively. Mean differential values of nucleosomes were lower in the third course as compared with the first course (p >0.001). The decrease in the third course correlated with pathologic response (p = 0.041). Survival analysis showed a statistically significant, better progression-free and survival time in patients who showed lower levels at the third course (p = 0.0243 and p = 0.0260, respectively). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that nucleosome increase in the third course increased risk of death to 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 0.84–56.0). CONCLUSION: Serum nucleosomes may have a predictive role for response and prognostic significance in patients with cervical cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Daily monitoring of TeV gamma-ray emission from Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and the Crab Nebula with HAWC

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    We present results from daily monitoring of gamma rays in the energy range 0.5\sim0.5 to 100\sim100 TeV with the first 17 months of data from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory. Its wide field of view of 2 steradians and duty cycle of >95>95% are unique features compared to other TeV observatories that allow us to observe every source that transits over HAWC for up to 6\sim6 hours each sidereal day. This regular sampling yields unprecedented light curves from unbiased measurements that are independent of seasons or weather conditions. For the Crab Nebula as a reference source we find no variability in the TeV band. Our main focus is the study of the TeV blazars Markarian (Mrk) 421 and Mrk 501. A spectral fit for Mrk 421 yields a power law index Γ=2.21±0.14stat±0.20sys\Gamma=2.21 \pm0.14_{\mathrm{stat}}\pm0.20_{\mathrm{sys}} and an exponential cut-off E0=5.4±1.1stat±1.0sysE_0=5.4 \pm 1.1_{\mathrm{stat}}\pm 1.0_{\mathrm{sys}} TeV. For Mrk 501, we find an index Γ=1.60±0.30stat±0.20sys\Gamma=1.60\pm 0.30_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 0.20_{\mathrm{sys}} and exponential cut-off E0=5.7±1.6stat±1.0sysE_0=5.7\pm 1.6_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 1.0_{\mathrm{sys}} TeV. The light curves for both sources show clear variability and a Bayesian analysis is applied to identify changes between flux states. The highest per-transit fluxes observed from Mrk 421 exceed the Crab Nebula flux by a factor of approximately five. For Mrk 501, several transits show fluxes in excess of three times the Crab Nebula flux. In a comparison to lower energy gamma-ray and X-ray monitoring data with comparable sampling we cannot identify clear counterparts for the most significant flaring features observed by HAWC.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    DNA Methylation-Independent Reversion of Gemcitabine Resistance by Hydralazine in Cervical Cancer Cells

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    BACKGROUND: Down regulation of genes coding for nucleoside transporters and drug metabolism responsible for uptake and metabolic activation of the nucleoside gemcitabine is related with acquired tumor resistance against this agent. Hydralazine has been shown to reverse doxorubicin resistance in a model of breast cancer. Here we wanted to investigate whether epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for acquiring resistance to gemcitabine and if hydralazine could restore gemcitabine sensitivity in cervical cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cervical cancer cell line CaLo cell line was cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of gemcitabine. Down-regulation of hENT1 & dCK genes was observed in the resistant cells (CaLoGR) which was not associated with promoter methylation. Treatment with hydralazine reversed gemcitabine resistance and led to hENT1 and dCK gene reactivation in a DNA promoter methylation-independent manner. No changes in HDAC total activity nor in H3 and H4 acetylation at these promoters were observed. ChIP analysis showed H3K9m2 at hENT1 and dCK gene promoters which correlated with hyper-expression of G9A histone methyltransferase at RNA and protein level in the resistant cells. Hydralazine inhibited G9A methyltransferase activity in vitro and depletion of the G9A gene by iRNA restored gemcitabine sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that acquired gemcitabine resistance is associated with DNA promoter methylation-independent hENT1 and dCK gene down-regulation and hyper-expression of G9A methyltransferase. Hydralazine reverts gemcitabine resistance in cervical cancer cells via inhibition of G9A histone methyltransferase

    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars

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    The CARMENES radial velocity (RV) survey is observing 324 M dwarfs to search for any orbiting planets. In this paper, we present the survey sample by publishing one CARMENES spectrum for each M dwarf. These spectra cover the wavelength range 520–1710 nm at a resolution of at least R >80 000, and we measure its RV, Hα emission, and projected rotation velocity. We present an atlas of high-resolution M-dwarf spectra and compare the spectra to atmospheric models. To quantify the RV precision that can be achieved in low-mass stars over the CARMENES wavelength range, we analyze our empirical information on the RV precision from more than 6500 observations. We compare our high-resolution M-dwarf spectra to atmospheric models where we determine the spectroscopic RV information content, Q, and signal-to-noise ratio. We find that for all M-type dwarfs, the highest RV precision can be reached in the wavelength range 700–900 nm. Observations at longer wavelengths are equally precise only at the very latest spectral types (M8 and M9). We demonstrate that in this spectroscopic range, the large amount of absorption features compensates for the intrinsic faintness of an M7 star. To reach an RV precision of 1 m s−1 in very low mass M dwarfs at longer wavelengths likely requires the use of a 10 m class telescope. For spectral types M6 and earlier, the combination of a red visual and a near-infrared spectrograph is ideal to search for low-mass planets and to distinguish between planets and stellar variability. At a 4 m class telescope, an instrument like CARMENES has the potential to push the RV precision well below the typical jitter level of 3–4 m s−1

    Multi-messenger observations of a binary neutron star merger