15 research outputs found

    Synthesis of metal-organic frameworks by continuous flow

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    A continuous flow process for the synthesis of a metal-organic framework using only water as the reaction medium and requiring only short residence times is described. This affords a new route to scale-up of materials incorporating many of the principles of green chemistry. The process is demonstrated by the synthesis MIL-53(Al) via continuous flow reaction requiring only 5-6 minutes with a space time yield of 1300 kg m-3 d-1. We have demonstrated the synthesis of 500 g of MIL-53(Al) using this process, which can be scaled-up further by simply feeding further solutions of metal salt and ligand through the reactor. The product has a higher surface area and a better colour than a commercially produced sample of this MOF. In addition, a new and effective method for the extraction of terephthalic acid from within the pores of MIL-53(Al) using supercritical ethanol has been developed, representing a new methodology for activation and removal of substrates from porous hosts

    Pleiotropic effects of incretins

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    Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia) and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia). The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the “glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones” of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-17-37 and GLP17-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine), central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius) and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health

    A1_2 Duck, duck... Spruce!

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    The H-4 Hercules was a prototype aircraft built in 1947 which was never properly flight tested. This report explores a theory that this aircraft would never have been able to fly more than a few hundred feet off of the ground due to the ground effect and that the plane was not viable for the purpose of transporting heavy military equipment. By exploring the pressure difference over the wing surfaces, the aircraft is shown to be able to reach a maximum altitude of 9,660 m and to require a minimum takeoff speed of 113.6 km/h. It is therefore shown that the aircraft would have been able to takeoff fully loaded and could have reached a high altitude successfully.Ă‚

    A1_9 The solar contract?

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    This report examines the claim by the 'Institute for Creation Research' that the Sun is contracting by about 5 ft per hour. It is determined that the gravitational potential energy released from the Sun contracting from its currently established radius to a radius 2.5 ft smaller would be larger than the Sun's current luminosity. It has also been shown that this would result in Earth being hotter than the current surface temperature of Venus and the Sun's peak of radiation would be in the ultra violet range rather than the visible

    A1_7 The Neutrino Problem

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    This report examines the premise from the movie "2012" (2009) that solar neutrinos start interacting with the core of the Earth, causing it to melt. A lower energy limit required for this interaction is found to be 9.55*10^4 GeV  and it is shown that the source of such energetic neutrinos is unlikely to be from within the solar system

    A1_6 Do you want to hang out?

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    This paper addresses the simple question: how much time will it take for wet clothes to dry, if they are hung up on a washing line, based on the current weather conditions? The metric form of the Penman equation is used to calculate the evaporation rate of water from a plane surface, which is dependent on the meteorological conditions of ambient temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and the various properties of air and water at said ambient temperature. Empirically measuring the surface area of, and the mass of water contained in, a wet piece of clothing enables the time taken t for total evaporation to be determined. This paper concludes with an equation for t, provided the above factors are known, and gives example results for different items of clothing

    A1_3 I believe in MIRACLs, where're you from?

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    The Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) antimissile system is currently being developed by the US Army. Its aim is to destroy incoming missiles with lasers. This paper determines that there is a maximum of 10 minutes preparation time (assuming the missile is fired from at least 10 minutes flight time away), and it would take a 1 MW laser about 0.82 seconds to destroy a typical missile made of aluminium. It does not however cover the practical difficulties involved with implementing such a system