49,406 research outputs found

    Small rare gas clusters in XUV laser pulses

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    Semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of small rare gas clusters in short laser pulses of 100 nm wavelength were performed. For comparison, the cluster response to 800 nm laser pulses was investigated as well. The inner ionization dynamics of the multi-electron atoms inside the cluster was treated explicitly. The simulation results underpin that at XUV wavelengths collisions play an important role in the energy absorption. The generation of the surprisingly high charge states of Xe atoms inside clusters, as they were observed in the free-electron laser experiment at DESY, Hamburg, Germany [Wabnitz et al., Nature 420, 482 (2002)], is due to the reduced ionization potential of atoms inside charged clusters, the ionization ignition mechanism, and collisions.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, uses Springer style svjou

    Maximal entropy random networks with given degree distribution

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    Using a maximum entropy principle to assign a statistical weight to any graph, we introduce a model of random graphs with arbitrary degree distribution in the framework of standard statistical mechanics. We compute the free energy and the distribution of connected components. We determine the size of the percolation cluster above the percolation threshold. The conditional degree distribution on the percolation cluster is also given. We briefly present the analogous discussion for oriented graphs, giving for example the percolation criterion.Comment: 22 pages, LateX, no figur

    QPROP: A Schroedinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction

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    The Qprop package is presented. Qprop has been developed to study laser-atom interaction in the nonperturbative regime where nonlinear phenomena such as above-threshold ionization, high order harmonic generation, and dynamic stabilization are known to occur. In the nonrelativistic regime and within the single active electron approximation, these phenomena can be studied with Qprop in the most rigorous way by solving the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation in three spatial dimensions. Because Qprop is optimized for the study of quantum systems that are spherically symmetric in their initial, unperturbed configuration, all wavefunctions are expanded in spherical harmonics. Time-propagation of the wavefunctions is performed using a split-operator approach. Photoelectron spectra are calculated employing a window-operator technique. Besides the solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation in single active electron approximation, Qprop allows to study many-electron systems via the solution of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations.Comment: 40 pages, LaTeX; to obtain the QPROP source code visit http://www.qprop.de, accepted for publication in Computer Physics Communication

    Two-color stabilization of atomic hydrogen in circularly polarized laser fields

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    Dynamic stabilization of atomic hydrogen against ionization in high-frequency single- and two-color, circularly polarized laser pulses is observed by numerically solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. The single-color case is revisited and numerically determined ionization rates are compared with both, exact and approximate high-frequency Floquet rates. The position of the peaks in the photoelectron spectra can be explained with the help of dressed initial states. In two-color laser fields of opposite circular polarization the stabilized probability density may be shaped in various ways. For laser frequencies ω1\omega_1 and ω2=nω1\omega_2=n\omega_1, n=2,3,...n=2,3,... and sufficiently large excursion amplitudes n+1n+1 distinct probability density peaks are observed. This may be viewed as the generalization of the well-known ``dichotomy'' in linearly polarized laser fields, i.e, as ``trichotomy,'' ``quatrochotomy,'' ``pentachotomy'' etc. All those observed structures and their ``hula-hoop''-like dynamics can be understood with the help of high-frequency Floquet theory and the two-color Kramers-Henneberger transformation. The shaping of the probability density in the stabilization regime can be realized without additional loss in the survival probability, as compared to the corresponding single-color results.Comment: 10 pages, REVTeX4, 11 eps-figures, see also http://www.physik.tu-darmstadt.de/tqe/dieter/publist.html for a manuscript with higher-quality figure

    A numerical ab initio study of harmonic generation from a ring-shaped model molecule in laser fields

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    When a laser pulse impinges on a molecule which is invariant under certain symmetry operations selection rules for harmonic generation (HG) arise. In other words: symmetry controls which channels are open for the deposition and emission of laser energy---with the possible application of filtering or amplification. We review the derivation of HG selection rules and study numerically the interaction of laser pulses with an effectively one-dimensional ring-shaped model molecule. The harmonic yields obtained from that model and their dependence on laser frequency and intensity are discussed. In a real experiment obvious candidates for such molecules are benzene, other aromatic compounds, or even nanotubes.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure
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