3,428 research outputs found

    Abnormal Perceptual Sensitivity in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

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    Objective Several compulsive grooming habits such as hair pulling, skin picking, and nail biting are collectively known as body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs). Although subclinical BFRBs are common and benign, more severe and damaging manifestations exist that are difficult to manage. Researchers have suggested that BFRBs are maintained by various cognitive, affective, and sensory contingencies. Although the involvement of cognitive and affective processes in BFRBs has been studied, there is a paucity of research on sensory processes. Methods The current study tested whether adults with subclinical or clinical BFRBs would report abnormal patterns of sensory processing as compared to a healthy control sample. Results Adults with clinical BFRBs (n = 26) reported increased sensory sensitivity as compared to persons with subclinical BFRBs (n = 48) and healthy individuals (n = 33). Elevations in sensation avoidance differentiated persons with clinical versus subclinical BFRBs. Sensation seeking patterns were not different between groups. Unexpectedly, BFRB severity was associated with lower registration of sensory stimuli, but this finding may be due to high psychiatric comorbidity rates in the BFRB groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that several sensory abnormalities may underlie BFRBs. Implications for the etiology and treatment of BFRBs are discussed

    Emotion Regulation Deficits in Persons with Body-Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders

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    Background Conceptualizations of emotion dysregulation (ED) and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBDs) imply that ED may be a central component of BFRBDs as well as a factor that distinguishes BFRBDs from non-impairing, subclinical body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs). The current study empirically tested these observations. Methods One hundred thirty-eight undergraduates (of 1900 who completed a screening survey) completed self-report measures assessing four emotion regulation (ER) deficits hypothesized to underlie ED (alexithymia, maladaptive emotional reactivity, experiential avoidance, and response inhibition when distressed); 34 of these participants had BFRBDs, 64 had subclinical BFRBs, and 42 were unaffected by BFRBs. Results Results indicated that participants with BFRBDs reported higher levels of maladaptive emotional reactivity, experiential avoidance, and response inhibition when distressed than participants with subclinical BFRBs and participants unaffected by BFRBs. These results held even when controlling for comorbidity and total number of reported BFRBs. Participants did not differ on alexithymia. Limitations Limitations of the current study include the BFRB groups’ different distributions of BFRB types (e.g., hair pulling versus skin picking), the sample\u27s demographic uniformity, and the fact that negative affectivity was not controlled when exploring BFRB group differences on ER deficits. Future research should improve on these limitations. Conclusions The current results suggest that ED is a factor that differentiates BFRBDs from subclinical BFRBs. Such results may be useful for generating hypotheses regarding mechanisms responsible for BFRBs’ development into BFRBDs. Furthermore, these results may provide insight into factors that explain the efficacy of more contemporary behavioral treatments for BFRBDs

    Pilot Open Case Series of Voice over Internet Protocol-Delivered Assessment and Behavior Therapy for Chronic Tic Disorders

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    Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is an efficacious treatment for children with chronic tic disorders (CTDs). Nevertheless, many families of children with CTDs are unable to access CBIT due to a lack of adequately trained treatment providers, time commitment, and travel distance. This study established the interrater reliability between in-person and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) administrations of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), and examined the preliminary efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of VoIP-delivered CBIT for reducing tics in children with CTDs in an open case series. Across in-person and VoIP administrations of the YGTSS, results showed mean agreement of 91%, 96%, and 95% for motor, phonic, and total tic severity subscales. In the pilot feasibility study, 4 children received 8 weekly sessions of CBIT via VoIP and were assessed at pre- and posttreatment by an independent evaluator. Results showed a 29.44% decrease in clinician-rated tic severity from pre- to posttreatment on the YGTSS. Two of the 4 patients were considered treatment responders at posttreatment, using Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement ratings. Therapeutic alliance, parent and child treatment satisfaction, and videoconferencing satisfaction ratings were high. CBIT was considered feasible to implement via VoIP, although further testing is recommended

    Computerized Response Inhibition Training For Children With Trichotillomania

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    Evidence suggests that trichotillomania is characterized by impairment in response inhibition, which is the ability to suppress pre-potent/dominant but inappropriate responses. This study sought to test the feasibility of computerized response inhibition training for children with trichotillomania. Twenty-two children were randomized to the 8-session response inhibition training (RIT; n = 12) or a waitlisted control (WLT; n = 10). Primary outcomes were assessed by an independent evaluator, using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I), and the NIMH Trichotillomania Severity (NIMH-TSS) and Impairment scales (NIMH-TIS) at pre, post-training/waiting, and 1-month follow-up. Relative to the WLT group, the RIT group showed a higher response rate (55% vs. 11%) on the CGI-I and a lower level of impairment on the NIMH-TIS, at post-training. Overall symptom reductions rates on the NIMH-TSS were 34% (RIT) vs. 21% (WLT) at post-training. The RIT\u27s therapeutic gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up, as indicated by the CGI-I responder status (= 66%), and a continuing reduction in symptom on the NIMH-TSS. This pattern of findings was also replicated by the 6 waitlisted children who received the same RIT intervention after post-waiting assessment. Results suggest that computerized RIT may be a potentially useful intervention for trichotillomania

    Influence of opposition team formation on physical and skill-related performance in a professional soccer team

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    This study examined the influence of opposition team formation on physical and skill-related performance in a professional soccer team. Performance in forty-five French League 1 matches played over three competitive seasons (2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10) was analysed using multi-camera computerised tracking. Players (n=21) in the reference team (using a 4-3-3/4-5-1 formation) were analysed in matches against three opposition team formations: 4-4-2 (11 games), 4-3-3/4-5-1 (16 games) and 4-2-3-1 (18 games). Performance was compared for defending and midfield units as a whole and individually across four positions: fullbacks, central-defenders and central- and wide-midfielders. Collectively, players covered a greater total distance (p<0.05) and distance in low/moderate-intensity running (0-14.3km/h) (p<0.05) in matches against a 4-2-3-1 compared to a 4-4-2 formation. Distance covered in high-intensity (14.4-19.7km/h) and very high-intensity running (≥19.8km/h) was not affected by opposition formation. In contrast, players covered more distance in total high-intensity performance (≥14.4km/h) when the reference team was in possession against a 4-4-2 compared to a 4-2-3-1 formation (p<0.05) while more distance was run at these speeds when the reference team was out of possession against a 4-2-3-1 (p<0.01) and a 4-3-3 (p<0.05) compared to a 4-4-2 formation. Players ran less distance at low/moderate intensities in the second- versus first-half of matches against all three formations (p<0.01 to p<0.05) whereas total distance and high-intensity performance was unaffected. None of the measures of physical performance across the individual playing positions were affected by opposition team formation. Skill-related performance varied according to opposition formation: players as a whole performed more passes versus a 4-4-2 than a 4-2-3-1 (p<0.01), ground and aerial duels versus a 4-2-3-1 compared to a 4-4-2 (both p<0.01); 1-touch passes versus a 4-2-3-1 compared to a 4-4-2 (p<0.01) and a 4-3-3/4-5-1 (p<0.05). The mean number of touches per possession was highest versus a 4-4-2 compared to a 4-3-3/4-5-1 (p<0.01) and a 4-2-3-1 (p<0.01). While skill-related performance across the four individual playing positions was generally unaffected by opposition team formation, mean pass length was greater in central-midfielders against a 4-4-2 compared to 4-3-3/4-5-1 (p<0.05) and 4-2-3-1 (p<0.01) formations. In general, these findings suggest that physical performance in the reference team was not greatly affected by opposition team formation. In contrast, skill-related demands varied substantially according to opponent formation and may have consequences for tactical and technical preparation and team selection policies

    Dataset for Response of the Invasive Alliaria Petiolata to Extreme Temperatures and Drought

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    Alliaria petiolata, a strict biennial in North America, can have annual alternating high abundance of rosettes and flowering plants. We monitored changes in abundance of rosettes and flowering plants in permanent plots (2004 to 2014). Three times during our study the alternating yearly cycle was not observed (2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2013-2014). We concluded stochastic Extreme Climate Events (ECEs), deviating from long-term climatic data norms (10th or 90th. percentile), likely caused negative organism responses. Long-term data from a local NOAA station located 25 km from our study site included monthly data (1) total precipitation, (2) number of days with \u3e 0.13 cm precipitation, and (3) mean and minimum temperatures. September 2007 met criteria for ECEs for all monthly variables. We first observed A. petiolata on our study site in 1988 and by the early 1990’s it was abundant. To determine if September 2007 significantly differed from other Septembers (1984-2014) we used six variables related to drought: (1) total precipitation, (2) number of days with precipitation, (3) number of contiguous days without precipitation, (4) mean monthly temperature, (5) mean maximum daily temperature, and (6) the number of days with temperatures \u3e 30 o C. The first two variables likely increase plant stress as they decrease, whereas stress declines as the remaining variables decrease. We used the six variables to generate a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) biplot. Axes 1 and 2 accounted for 74.3% of the variance. Record-breaking minimum temperatures (ECEs) for January (2009) and February-March (2014) likely reduced rosette abundance and disrupted reestablishment of alternating high abundance of rosettes and flowering plants. Our data suggest that a single ECE variable, minimum temperature, and multiple ECE variables related to drought likely had negative effects on A. petiolata