433 research outputs found

    Towards Ecology Inspired Software Engineering

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    Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.Comment: No. RR-7952 (2012

    Artificial table testing dynamically adaptive systems

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    Dynamically Adaptive Systems (DAS) are systems that modify their behavior and structure in response to changes in their surrounding environment. Critical mission systems increasingly incorporate adaptation and response to the environment; examples include disaster relief and space exploration systems. These systems can be decomposed in two parts: the adaptation policy that specifies how the system must react according to the environmental changes and the set of possible variants to reconfigure the system. A major challenge for testing these systems is the combinatorial explosions of variants and envi-ronment conditions to which the system must react. In this paper we focus on testing the adaption policy and propose a strategy for the selection of envi-ronmental variations that can reveal faults in the policy. Artificial Shaking Table Testing (ASTT) is a strategy inspired by shaking table testing (STT), a technique widely used in civil engineering to evaluate building's structural re-sistance to seismic events. ASTT makes use of artificial earthquakes that simu-late violent changes in the environmental conditions and stresses the system adaptation capability. We model the generation of artificial earthquakes as a search problem in which the goal is to optimize different types of envi-ronmental variations

    Empirical Evidence of Large-Scale Diversity in API Usage of Object-Oriented Software

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    In this paper, we study how object-oriented classes are used across thousands of software packages. We concentrate on "usage diversity'", defined as the different statically observable combinations of methods called on the same object. We present empirical evidence that there is a significant usage diversity for many classes. For instance, we observe in our dataset that Java's String is used in 2460 manners. We discuss the reasons of this observed diversity and the consequences on software engineering knowledge and research

    Tailored Source Code Transformations to Synthesize Computationally Diverse Program Variants

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    The predictability of program execution provides attackers a rich source of knowledge who can exploit it to spy or remotely control the program. Moving target defense addresses this issue by constantly switching between many diverse variants of a program, which reduces the certainty that an attacker can have about the program execution. The effectiveness of this approach relies on the availability of a large number of software variants that exhibit different executions. However, current approaches rely on the natural diversity provided by off-the-shelf components, which is very limited. In this paper, we explore the automatic synthesis of large sets of program variants, called sosies. Sosies provide the same expected functionality as the original program, while exhibiting different executions. They are said to be computationally diverse. This work addresses two objectives: comparing different transformations for increasing the likelihood of sosie synthesis (densifying the search space for sosies); demonstrating computation diversity in synthesized sosies. We synthesized 30184 sosies in total, for 9 large, real-world, open source applications. For all these programs we identified one type of program analysis that systematically increases the density of sosies; we measured computation diversity for sosies of 3 programs and found diversity in method calls or data in more than 40% of sosies. This is a step towards controlled massive unpredictability of software

    Dynamic Analysis can be Improved with Automatic Test Suite Refactoring

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    Context: Developers design test suites to automatically verify that software meets its expected behaviors. Many dynamic analysis techniques are performed on the exploitation of execution traces from test cases. However, in practice, there is only one trace that results from the execution of one manually-written test case. Objective: In this paper, we propose a new technique of test suite refactoring, called B-Refactoring. The idea behind B-Refactoring is to split a test case into small test fragments, which cover a simpler part of the control flow to provide better support for dynamic analysis. Method: For a given dynamic analysis technique, our test suite refactoring approach monitors the execution of test cases and identifies small test cases without loss of the test ability. We apply B-Refactoring to assist two existing analysis tasks: automatic repair of if-statements bugs and automatic analysis of exception contracts. Results: Experimental results show that test suite refactoring can effectively simplify the execution traces of the test suite. Three real-world bugs that could previously not be fixed with the original test suite are fixed after applying B-Refactoring; meanwhile, exception contracts are better verified via applying B-Refactoring to original test suites. Conclusions: We conclude that applying B-Refactoring can effectively improve the purity of test cases. Existing dynamic analysis tasks can be enhanced by test suite refactoring

    Découpez vos Modèles avec Kompren : une Démonstration

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    Démonstration, 4emes journées nationales du GDR-GPL 2012, p. 201--202Le découpage de modèles (model slicing) est une opération qui extrait un sous-ensemble d'un modèle dans un but précis, tel que la compréhension de modèles et l'amélioration de performances. Cependant, les approches actuelles de découpage de modèles sont dédiées à un domaine de modélisation (métamodèle) particulier. L'apparition régulière de nouveaux domaines nécessite alors la conception et l'implantation de nouvelles fonctionnalités de découpage de modèles. Dans nos récents travaux, nous avons proposé Kompren, un environnement pour définir et générer des découpeurs de modèles (model slicers) pour tout type de domaine de modélisation. Cette démonstration présente les différents outils de Kompren et trois cas d'utilisation illustrant l'expressivité du langage

    Towards Scalable Multidimensional Execution Traces for xDSMLs

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    International audienceExecutable Domain Specific Modeling Languages (xDSML) opens many possibilities in terms of early verification and validation (V&V) of systems, including the use of dynamic V&V approaches. Such approaches rely on the notion of execution trace, i.e. the evolution of a system during a run. To benefit from dynamic V&V approaches, it is therefore necessary to characterize what is the structure of the executions traces of a given xDSML. Our goal is to provide an approach to design trace metamodels for xDSMLs. We identify seven problems that must be considered when modeling execution traces, including concurrency, modularity, and scalability. Then we present our envisioned approach to design scalable multidimensional trace metamodels for xDSMLs. Our work in progress relies on the dimensions of a trace (i.e. subsets of mu- table elements of the traced model) to provide an original structure that faces the identified problems, along with a trace API to manipulate them

    DSpot: Test Amplification for Automatic Assessment of Computational Diversity

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    Context: Computational diversity, i.e., the presence of a set of programs that all perform compatible services but that exhibit behavioral differences under certain conditions, is essential for fault tolerance and security. Objective: We aim at proposing an approach for automatically assessing the presence of computational diversity. In this work, computationally diverse variants are defined as (i) sharing the same API, (ii) behaving the same according to an input-output based specification (a test-suite) and (iii) exhibiting observable differences when they run outside the specified input space. Method: Our technique relies on test amplification. We propose source code transformations on test cases to explore the input domain and systematically sense the observation domain. We quantify computational diversity as the dissimilarity between observations on inputs that are outside the specified domain. Results: We run our experiments on 472 variants of 7 classes from open-source, large and thoroughly tested Java classes. Our test amplification multiplies by ten the number of input points in the test suite and is effective at detecting software diversity. Conclusion: The key insights of this study are: the systematic exploration of the observable output space of a class provides new insights about its degree of encapsulation; the behavioral diversity that we observe originates from areas of the code that are characterized by their flexibility (caching, checking, formatting, etc.).Comment: 12 page
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