2,362 research outputs found

    Structure of W3(OH) from Very High Spectral Resolution Observations of 5 Centimeter OH Masers

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    Recent studies of methanol and ground-state OH masers at very high spectral resolution have shed new light on small-scale maser processes. The nearby source W3(OH), which contains numerous bright masers in several different transitions, provides an excellent laboratory for high spectral resolution techniques. We present a model of W3(OH) based on EVN observations of the rotationally-excited 6030 and 6035 MHz OH masers taken at 0.024 km/s spectral resolution. The 6.0 GHz masers are becoming brighter with time and show evidence for tangential proper motions. We confirm the existence of a region of magnetic field oriented toward the observer to the southeast and find another such region to the northeast in W3(OH), near the champagne flow. The 6.0 GHz masers trace the inner edge of a counterclockwise rotating torus feature. Masers at 6030 MHz are usually a factor of a few weaker than at 6035 MHz but trace the same material. Velocity gradients of nearby Zeeman components are much more closely correlated than in the ground state, likely due to the smaller spatial separation between Zeeman components. Hydroxyl maser peaks at very long baseline interferometric resolution appear to have structure on scales both smaller than that resolvable as well as on larger scales.Comment: 21 pages using emulateapj.cls including 16 figures and 2 tables, accepted to Ap

    Low-luminosity Extragalactic Water Masers toward M82, M51, and NGC4051

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    Sub-arcsecond observations using the Very Large Array (VLA) are presented for low-luminosity water maser in M82, M51, and NGC4051. New maser features have been detected within the M82 starburst complex. They are largely associated with star-forming activity, such as optically identified starburst-driven winds, H II regions, or the early phase of star formation in the galaxy. The water maser in M51 consists of blueshifted and redshifted features relative to thesystemic velocity of the galaxy. The redshifted features are measured to the northwest of the nuclear radio source, while the location of the blueshifted counterpart is displaced by about 2" from the radio source. A small velocity gradient closely aligned with the radio jet is detected from the redshifted features. The redshifted maser most likely amplifies the background radio continuum jet, while the blueshifted counterpart marks off-nuclear star formation in the galaxy. All of the detected maser features in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 remain unresolved by new VLA observations. Due to the low luminosity of the maser, the maser excitation is not directly related to the active galactic nucleus.Comment: 20 pages, 10 figures. Accepted for publication in AJ (17/Oct/2006

    Extremely Luminous Water Vapor Emission from a Type 2 Quasar at Redshift z = 0.66

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    A search for water masers in 47 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Type 2 quasars using the Green Bank Telescope has yielded a detection at a redshift of z = 0.660. This maser is more than an order of magnitude higher in redshift than any previously known and, with a total isotropic luminosity of 23,000 L_sun, also the most powerful. The presence and detectability of water masers in quasars at z ~ 0.3-0.8 may provide a better understanding of quasar molecular tori and disks, as well as fundamental quasar and galaxy properties such as black hole masses. Water masers at cosmologically interesting distances may also eventually provide, via direct distance determinations, a new cosmological observable for testing the reality and properties of dark energy, currently inferred primarily through Type 1a supernova measurements.Comment: 8 pages including 1 figure; accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Effelsberg Observations of Excited-State (6.0 GHz) OH in Supernova Remnants and W3(OH)

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    While masers in the 1720 MHz transition of OH are detected toward many supernova remnants (SNRs), no other OH transition is seen as a maser in SNRs. We present a search for masers at 6049 MHz, which has recently been predicted to produce masers by pure collisional excitation at conditions similar to that required for 1720 MHz masing. The Effelsberg 100 m telescope was used to observe the excited-state 6016, 6030, 6035, and 6049 MHz lines of OH toward selected SNRs, most of which have previously-detected bright 1720 MHz masers. No excited-state masers are found toward SNRs, consistent with previous observations of the 6049 MHz and other excited-state transitions. We do not see clear evidence of absorption toward SNR target positions, although we do see evidence of absorption in the molecular cloud at +50 km/s near Sgr A East. Weak absorption is detected at 6016 MHz toward W3(OH), while stronger, narrower emission is seen at 6049 MHz, suggesting that the 6049 MHz emission is a low-gain maser. We conclude that conditions in SNRs are not conducive to excited-state maser emission, especially in excited-state satellite lines.Comment: 4 pages using emulateapj.cls including 2 tables and 1 figure, accepted to ApJ

    A high-sensitivity OH 5-cm line survey in late-type stars

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    We have undertaken a comprehensive search for 5-cm excited OH maser emission from evolved stars representative of various stages of late stellar evolution. Observed sources were selected from known 18-cm OH sources. This survey was conducted with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope to achieve high signal to noise ratio observations and a sensitivity limit of about 0.05 to 0.1 Jy. A total of 64 stellar sources were searched for both main line and satellite line emission. We confirm the previous detection of 5 cm OH in Vy 2-2, do not confirm emission from NML-Cyg and do not report any other new detection within the above sensitivity limit. Implications of these results on the pumping mechanism of the OH radical in circumstellar envelopes are briefly discussed.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, A&A in pres

    VLBI Astrometry of the Stellar Image of U Herculis, Amplified by the 1667 OH Maser

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    The OH 1667 MHz maser in the circumstellar shell around the Mira variable U Herculis has been observed with the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 6 epochs, spread over 4 years. Using phase referencing techniques the position of the most blue-shifted maser spot was monitored with respect to two extra-galactic radio sources. The absolute radio positions of the maser can be compared with the stellar optical position measured by the Hipparcos satellite to 15 mas accuracy. This confirms the model in which one of the maser spots corresponds to the stellar continuum, amplified by the maser. The stellar proper motion and the annual parallax (5.3 +/- 2.1 mas) were measured.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures; to be published in A&

    Traumatic Deviation of the Popliteal Artery

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    EVLA Observations of OH Masers in ON 1

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    This Letter reports on initial Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) observations of the 6035 MHz masers in ON 1. The EVLA data are of good quality, lending confidence in the new receiver system. Nineteen maser features, including six Zeeman pairs, are detected. The overall distribution of 6035 MHz OH masers is similar to that of the 1665 MHz OH masers. The spatial resolution is sufficient to unambiguously determine that the magnetic field is strong (~ -10 mG) at the location of the blueshifted masers in the north, consistent with Zeeman splitting detected in 13441 MHz OH masers in the same velocity range. Left and right circularly polarized ground-state features dominate in different regions in the north of the source, which may be due to a combination of magnetic field and velocity gradients. The combined distribution of all OH masers toward the south is suggestive of a shock structure of the sort previously seen in W3(OH).Comment: 4 pages using emulateapj.cls including 2 tables and 2 color figure
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