5,695 research outputs found

    Exercise-linked improvement in age-associated loss of balance is associated with increased vestibular input to motor neurons

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    Age-associated loss of muscle function is exacerbated by a concomitant reduction in balance, leading to gait abnormalities and falls. Even though balance defects can be mitigated by exercise, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. We now have investigated components of the proprioceptive and vestibular systems in specific motor neuron pools in sedentary and trained old mice, respectively. We observed a strong age-linked deterioration in both circuits, with a mitigating effect of exercise on vestibular synapse numbers on motor neurons, closely associated with an improvement in gait and balance in old mice. Our results thus describe how the proprioceptive and vestibular systems are modulated by age and exercise, and how these changes affect their input to motor neurons. These findings not only make a strong case for exercise-based interventions in elderly individuals to improve balance, but could also lead to targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at the respective neuronal circuitry

    Entrepreneurial sons, patriarchy and the Colonels' experiment in Thessaly, rural Greece

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    Existing studies within the field of institutional entrepreneurship explore how entrepreneurs influence change in economic institutions. This paper turns the attention of scholarly inquiry on the antecedents of deinstitutionalization and more specifically, the influence of entrepreneurship in shaping social institutions such as patriarchy. The paper draws from the findings of ethnographic work in two Greek lowland village communities during the military Dictatorship (1967–1974). Paradoxically this era associated with the spread of mechanization, cheap credit, revaluation of labour and clear means-ends relations, signalled entrepreneurial sons’ individuated dissent and activism who were now able to question the Patriarch’s authority, recognize opportunities and act as unintentional agents of deinstitutionalization. A ‘different’ model of institutional change is presented here, where politics intersects with entrepreneurs, in changing social institutions. This model discusses the external drivers of institutional atrophy and how handling dissensus (and its varieties over historical time) is instrumental in enabling institutional entrepreneurship

    How hybrids manage growth and social–business tensions in global supply chains: the case of impact sourcing

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    This study contributes to the growing interest in how hybrid organizations manage paradoxical social–business tensions. Our empirical case is ‘‘impact sourcing’’— hybrids in global supply chains that hire staff from disadvantaged communities to provide services to business clients. We identify two major growth orientations— ‘‘community-focused’’ and ‘‘client-focused’’ growth—their inherent tensions and ways that hybrids manage them. The former favors slow growth and manages tensions through highly integrated client and community relations; the latter promotes faster growth and manages client and community relations separately. Both growth orientations address social–business tensions in particular ways, but also create latent constraints that manifest when entrepreneurial aspirations conflict with the current growth path. In presenting and discussing our findings, we introduce preempting management practices of tensions, and the importance of geographic embeddedness and distance to the paradox literature

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation, and upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production cross section. The presence of the standard model Higgs boson with a mass in the 270-440 GeV range is excluded at 95% confidence level.Comment: Submitted to JHE

    Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation