297 research outputs found

    Physical and chemical stability of expired fixed dose combination artemether-lumefantrine in uncontrolled tropical conditions

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>New artemisinin combination therapies pose difficulties of implementation in developing and tropical settings because they have a short shelf-life (two years) relative to the medicines they replace. This limits the reliability and cost of treatment, and the acceptability of this treatment to health care workers. A multi-pronged investigation was made into the chemical and physical stability of fixed dose combination artemether-lumefantrine (FDC-ALU) stored under heterogeneous, uncontrolled African conditions, to probe if a shelf-life extension might be possible.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Seventy samples of expired FDC-ALU were collected from private pharmacies and malaria researchers in seven African countries. The samples were subjected to thin-layer chromatography (TLC), disintegration testing, and near infrared Raman spectrometry for ascertainment of active ingredients, tablet integrity, and chemical degradation of the tablet formulation including both active ingredients and excipients.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Seventy samples of FDC-ALU were tested in July 2008, between one and 58 months post-expiry. 68 of 70 (97%) samples passed TLC, disintegration and Raman spectrometry testing, including eight samples that were post-expiry by 20 months or longer. A weak linear association (R<sup>2 </sup>= 0.33) was observed between the age of samples and their state of degradation relative to brand-identical samples on Raman spectrometry. Sixty-eight samples were retested in February 2009 using Raman spectrometry, between eight and 65 months post-expiry. 66 of 68 (97%) samples passed Raman spectrometry retesting. An unexpected observation about African drug logistics was made in three batches of FDC-ALU, which had been sold into the public sector at concessional pricing in accordance with a World Health Organization (WHO) agreement, and which were illegally diverted to the private sector where they were sold for profit.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The data indicate that FDC-ALU is chemically and physically stable well beyond its stated shelf-life in uncontrolled, tropical conditions. While these data are not themselves sufficient, it is strongly suggested that a re-evaluation of the two-year shelf-life by drug regulatory authorities is warranted.</p

    First report of generalized face processing difficulties in möbius sequence.

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    Reverse simulation models of facial expression recognition suggest that we recognize the emotions of others by running implicit motor programmes responsible for the production of that expression. Previous work has tested this theory by examining facial expression recognition in participants with Möbius sequence, a condition characterized by congenital bilateral facial paralysis. However, a mixed pattern of findings has emerged, and it has not yet been tested whether these individuals can imagine facial expressions, a process also hypothesized to be underpinned by proprioceptive feedback from the face. We investigated this issue by examining expression recognition and imagery in six participants with Möbius sequence, and also carried out tests assessing facial identity and object recognition, as well as basic visual processing. While five of the six participants presented with expression recognition impairments, only one was impaired at the imagery of facial expressions. Further, five participants presented with other difficulties in the recognition of facial identity or objects, or in lower-level visual processing. We discuss the implications of our findings for the reverse simulation model, and suggest that facial identity recognition impairments may be more severe in the condition than has previously been noted

    The evolution of nutritional care in children and young people with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a narrative review

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Wiley via the DOI in this recordData availability statement: Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analysed in this study.Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common paediatric malignancy in the world. Advances in treatment protocols have resulted in survival rates of >80% in most high‐income countries (HIC); however, children and young people (CYP) with ALL continue to face significant nutrition‐related challenges during treatment. Methods: This narrative review outlines the changing landscape of treatment and survivorship for CYP with ALL and the advances in nutrition knowledge that call for changes to clinical nutrition practice. Results: The incidence of ALL has remained stable in HIC; however, there have been significant advances in survival over the past 30 years. Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent in CYP with ALL at diagnosis, during treatment and in survivorship. Coupled with poor diet quality, high‐energy and saturated fat intakes, altered eating behaviours and inactivity, this necessitates the need for a shift in nutrition intervention. Undernutrition remains a concern for CYP with high‐risk treatment protocols where oral or enteral nutrition support remains a cornerstone of maintaining nutrition status. Conclusions: With improved treatment protocols and high survival rates, a shift to focusing on diet quality, prevention of excessive weight gain and obesity during treatment and survivorship is necessary

    Solving the border control problem: evidence of enhanced face matching in individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills.

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    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies

    Giant Anharmonic Phonon Scattering in PbTe

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    Understanding the microscopic processes affecting the bulk thermal conductivity is crucial to develop more efficient thermoelectric materials. PbTe is currently one of the leading thermoelectric materials, largely thanks to its low thermal conductivity. However, the origin of this low thermal conductivity in a simple rocksalt structure has so far been elusive. Using a combination of inelastic neutron scattering measurements and first-principles computations of the phonons, we identify a strong anharmonic coupling between the ferroelectric transverse optic (TO) mode and the longitudinal acoustic (LA) modes in PbTe. This interaction extends over a large portion of reciprocal space, and directly affects the heat-carrying LA phonons. The LA-TO anharmonic coupling is likely to play a central role in explaining the low thermal conductivity of PbTe. The present results provide a microscopic picture of why many good thermoelectric materials are found near a lattice instability of the ferroelectric type

    Overview of the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project

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    The Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) seeks to characterize 20 OB-dominated young clusters and their environs at distances d ≤ 4 kpc using imaging detectors on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope. The observational goals are to construct catalogs of star-forming complex stellar members with well-defined criteria and maps of nebular gas (particularly of hot X-ray-emitting plasma) and dust. A catalog of MYStIX Probable Complex Members with several hundred OB stars and 31,784 low-mass pre-main sequence stars is assembled. This sample and related data products will be used to seek new empirical constraints on theoretical models of cluster formation and dynamics, mass segregation, OB star formation, star formation triggering on the periphery of H II regions, and the survivability of protoplanetary disks in H II regions. This paper gives an introduction and overview of the project, covering the data analysis methodology and application to two star-forming regions: NGC 2264 and the Trifid Nebula. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.We thank J. Forbrich and P. Teixeira (Univ. Vienna) for useful discussion about NGC 2264. The MYStIX project is supported at Penn State by NASA grant NNX09AC74G, NSF grant AST-0908038, and theChandra ACIS Team contract SV4- 74018 (PIs: G. Garmire & L. Townsley), issued by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS8-03060. M. S. Povich was supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0901646. This research made use of data products from the Chandra Data Archive and the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) under a contract with NASA. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the U.K. This work is based in part on data obtained as part of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and in part on data obtained in UKIRT Director’s Discretionary Time. This research used data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The HAWK-I near-infrared observations were collected with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager instrument on the ESO 8 m Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile, under ESO programme 60.A-9284(K). This research has also made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services, the SIMBAD database operated at the Centre de Donnees ´ Astronomique de Strasbourg, and SAOImage DS9 software developed by Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

    Impact of information letters on the reporting rate of adverse drug reactions and the quality of the reports: a randomized controlled study

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    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important method for pharmacovigilance, but under-reporting and poor quality of reports are major limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate if repeated one-page ADR information letters affect (i) the reporting rate of ADRs and (ii) the quality of the ADR reports. METHODS: All 151 primary healthcare units in the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention (n = 77) or a control group (n = 74). The intervention consisted of one-page ADR information letters administered at three occasions during 2008 to all physicians and nurses in the intervention units. The number of ADR reports received from the 151 units was registered, as was the quality of the reports, which was defined as high if the ADR was to be reported according to Swedish regulations, that is, if the ADR was (i) serious, (ii) unexpected, and/or (iii) related to the use of new drugs and not labelled as common in the Summary of Product Characteristics. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate if the ADR information letter had reached the intended recipient. RESULTS: Before the intervention, no significant differences in reporting rate or number of high quality reports could be detected between the randomization groups. In 2008, 79 reports were sent from 37 intervention units and 52 reports from 30 control units (mean number of reports per unit ± standard deviation: 1.0 ± 2.5 vs. 0.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.34). The number of high quality reports was higher in intervention units than in control units (37 vs. 15 reports, 0.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.048). According to the returned questionnaires (n = 1,292, response rate 57%), more persons in the intervention than in the control group had received (29% vs. 19%, P &lt; 0.0001) and read (31% vs. 26%, P &lt; 0.0001) an ADR information letter. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that repeated ADR information letters to physicians and nurses do not increase the ADR reporting rate, but may increase the number of high quality reports

    Impact of information letters on the reporting rate of adverse drug reactions and the quality of the reports: a randomized controlled study

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    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an important method for pharmacovigilance, but under-reporting and poor quality of reports are major limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate if repeated one-page ADR information letters affect (i) the reporting rate of ADRs and (ii) the quality of the ADR reports. METHODS: All 151 primary healthcare units in the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden, were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention (n = 77) or a control group (n = 74). The intervention consisted of one-page ADR information letters administered at three occasions during 2008 to all physicians and nurses in the intervention units. The number of ADR reports received from the 151 units was registered, as was the quality of the reports, which was defined as high if the ADR was to be reported according to Swedish regulations, that is, if the ADR was (i) serious, (ii) unexpected, and/or (iii) related to the use of new drugs and not labelled as common in the Summary of Product Characteristics. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate if the ADR information letter had reached the intended recipient. RESULTS: Before the intervention, no significant differences in reporting rate or number of high quality reports could be detected between the randomization groups. In 2008, 79 reports were sent from 37 intervention units and 52 reports from 30 control units (mean number of reports per unit ± standard deviation: 1.0 ± 2.5 vs. 0.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.34). The number of high quality reports was higher in intervention units than in control units (37 vs. 15 reports, 0.5 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.048). According to the returned questionnaires (n = 1,292, response rate 57%), more persons in the intervention than in the control group had received (29% vs. 19%, P &lt; 0.0001) and read (31% vs. 26%, P &lt; 0.0001) an ADR information letter. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that repeated ADR information letters to physicians and nurses do not increase the ADR reporting rate, but may increase the number of high quality reports
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