123 research outputs found

    Factors Associated with Physician Agreement and Coding Choices of Cause of Death Using Verbal Autopsies for 1130 Maternal Deaths in India

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    The Indian Sample Registration System (SRS) with verbal autopsy methods provides estimations of cause specific mortality for maternal deaths, where the majority of deaths occur at home, unregistered. We aim to examine factors that influence physician agreement and coding choices in assigning causes of death from verbal autopsies.Among adult deaths identified in the SRS, pregnancy-related deaths recorded in 2001-2003 were assigned ICD-10 codes by two independent physicians. Inter-rater reliability was estimated using Landis Koch Kappa classification ≤0.4--poor to fair agreement; >0.4 ≤0.6--moderate agreement; >0.6 ≤0.8--substantial agreement; >8--high agreement. We identified factors associated with physician agreement using multivariate logistic regression. A central consensus panel reviewed cases for errors and reclassified as needed based on 2011 ICD-10 coding guidelines. Of 1130 pregnancy-related deaths, 1040 were assigned ICD-10 codes by two physicians. We found substantial agreement regardless of the woman's residence, whether the death was registered, religion, respondent's or deceased's education, age, hospital admission or gestational age. Physician agreement was not influenced by the above variables, with the exception of greater agreement in cases where the respondent did not live with the deceased, or early gestational age at the time of death. A central consensus panel reviewed all cases and recoded 10% of cases due to insufficient use of information in the verbal autopsy by the coding physicians and rationale for this reclassification are discussed.In the absence of complete vital registration and universal healthcare services, physician coded verbal autopsies continues to be heavily relied upon to ascertain pregnancy-related death. From this study, two independent physicians had good inter-rater reliability for assigning pregnancy-related causes of death in a nationally-represented sample, and physician coding does not appear to be heavily influenced by case characteristics or demographics

    Factors Associated with Physician Agreement on Verbal Autopsy of over 27000 Childhood Deaths in India

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    Each year, more than 10 million children younger than five years of age die. The large majority of these deaths occur in the developing world. The verbal autopsy (VA) is a tool designed to ascertain cause of death in such settings. While VA has been validated against hospital diagnosed cause of death, there has been no research conducted to better understand the factors that may influence individual physicians in determining cause of death from VA.This study uses data from over 27,000 neonatal and childhood deaths from The Million Death Study in which 6.3 million people in India were monitored for vital status between 1998 and 2003. The main outcome variable was physician agreement or disagreement of category of death and the variables were assessed for association using the kappa statistic, univariate and multivariate logistic regression using a conceptual hierarchical model, and a sensitivity and specificity analysis using the final VA category of mortality as the gold standard. The main variables found to be significantly associated with increased physician agreement included older ages and male gender of the deceased. When taking into account confounding factors in the multivariate analysis, we did not find consistent significant differences in physician agreement based on the death being in a rural or urban area, at home or in a health care facility, registered or not, or the respondent's gender, religion, relationship to the deceased, or whether or not the respondent lived with the deceased.Factors influencing physician agreement/disagreement to the greatest degree are the gender and age of the deceased; specifically, physicians tend to be less likely to agree on a common category of death in female children and in younger ages, particularly neonates. Additional training of physician reviewers and continued adaptation of the VA itself, with a focus on gender and age of the deceased, may be useful in increasing rates of physician agreement in these groups

    Capturing the Context of Maternal Deaths from Verbal Autopsies: A Reliability Study of the Maternal Data Extraction Tool (M-DET)

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    BACKGROUND: The availability of quality data to inform policy is essential to reduce maternal deaths. To characterize maternal deaths in settings without complete vital registration systems, we designed and assessed the inter-rater reliability of a tool to systematically extract data and characterize the events that precede a nationally representative sample of maternal deaths in India. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 1017 nationally representative pregnancy-related deaths, which occurred between 2001 and 2003, we randomly selected 105 reports. Two independent coders used the maternal data extraction tool (questions with coding guidelines) to collect information on antenatal care access, final pregnancy outcome; planned place of birth and care provider; community consultation, transport, admission, hospital referral; and verification of cause of death assignment. Kappa estimated inter-rater agreement was calculated and classified as poor (K≤0.4), moderate (K = 0.4≤0.6), substantial (K = 0.6≤ 0.8) and high (K>0.8) using the criteria from Landis & Koch. The data extraction tool had high agreement for gestational age, pregnancy outcome, transport, death en route and admission to hospital; substantial agreement for receipt of antenatal care, planned place of birth, readmission and referral to higher level hospital, and whether or not death occurred in the intrapartum period; moderate to substantial agreement for classification of deaths as direct or indirect obstetric deaths or incidental deaths; moderate agreement for classification of community healthcare consultation and total number of healthcare contacts; and poor agreement for the classification of deaths as sudden deaths and other/unknown cause of death. The ability of the tool to identify the most-responsible-person in labour varied from moderate agreement to high agreement. CONCLUSIONS: This data extraction tool achieved good inter-rater reliability and can be used to collect data on events surrounding maternal deaths and for verification/improvement of underlying cause of death

    Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.</p

    A novel development indicator based on population-average height trajectories of children aged 0-5 years modelled using 145 surveys in 64 countries, 2000-2018.

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    INTRODUCTION: Children's growth status is an important measure commonly used as a proxy indicator of advancements in a country's health, human capital and economic development. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using Super-Imposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) models for summarising population-based cross-sectional height-by-age data of children under 5 years across 64 countries. METHODS: Using 145 publicly available Demographic and Health Surveys of children under 5 years across 64 low-income and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2018, we created a multicountry pseudo-longitudinal dataset of children's heights. RESULTS: SITAR models including two parameters (size and intensity) explained 81% of the between-survey variation in mean boys' height and 80% in mean girls' height. Size parameters for boys and girls (relative to the WHO child growth standards) were distributed non-normally around a mean of -5.2 cm for boys (range: -7.9 cm to -1.6 cm) and -4.9 cm for girls (range: -7.7 cm to -1.2 cm). Boys exhibited 10% slower linear growth compared with the WHO (range: 19.7% slower to 1.6% faster) and girls 11% slower linear growth compared with the WHO (range: 21.4% slower to 1.0% faster). Variation in the SITAR size parameter was ≥90% explained by the combination of average length within the first 60 days of birth (as a proxy for fetal growth) and intensity, regardless of sex, with much greater contribution by postnatal intensity (r≥0.89 between size and intensity). CONCLUSIONS: SITAR models with two random effects can be used to model child linear growth using multicountry pseudo-longitudinal data, and thereby provide a feasible alternative approach to summarising early childhood height trajectories based on survey data. The SITAR intensity parameter may be a novel indicator for specifically tracking progress in the determinants of postnatal growth in low-income and middle-income countries

    Data gaps in adolescent fertility surveillance in middle-income countries in Latin America and South Eastern Europe: Barriers to evidence-based health promotion

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    Adolescent health is a major global priority. Yet, as recently described by the World Health Organization (WHO), increased recognition of the importance of adolescent health rarely transforms into action. One challenge is lack of data, particularly on adolescent fertility. Adolescent pregnancy and childbirth are widespread and affect lifetime health and social outcomes of women, men, and families. Other important components of adolescent fertility include abortion, miscarriage, and stillbirth. Access to reliable, consistently-collected data to understand the scope and complexity of adolescent fertility is critical for designing strong research, developing meaningful policies, building effective programs, and evaluating success in these domains. Vital surveillance data can be challenging to obtain in general, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries and other under-resourced settings (including rural and indigenous communities in high-income countries). Definitions also vary, making comparisons over time and across locations challenging. Informed by the Adolescence and Motherhood Research project in Brazil and considering relevance to the Southern Eastern European (SEE) context, this article focuses on challenges in surveillance data for adolescent fertility for middle-income countries. Specifically, we review the literature to: (1) discuss the importance of understanding adolescent fertility generally, and (2) highlight relevant challenges and complexity in collecting adolescent fertility data, then we (3) consider implications of data gaps on this topic for selected middle-income countries in Latin America and SEE, and (4) propose next steps to improve adolescent fertility data for evidence-based health promotion in the middle-income country context

    Combined clinical audits and low-dose, high-frequency, in-service training of health care providers and community health workers to improve maternal and newborn health in Mali: Protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized trial

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    Background: Although most births in Mali occur in health facilities, a substantial number of newborns still die during delivery and within the first 7 days of life, mainly because of existing training deficiencies and the challenges of maintaining intrapartum and postpartum care skills.Objective: This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an intervention combining clinical audits and low-dose, high-frequency (LDHF) in-service training of health care providers and community health workers to reduce perinatal mortality.Methods: The study is a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial in the Koulikoro region in Mali. The units of randomization are each of 84 primary care facilities. Each trial arm will include 28 facilities. The facilities in the first intervention arm will receive support in implementing mortality and morbidity audits, followed by one-day LDHF training biweekly, for 6 months. The health workers in the second intervention arm (28 facilities) will receive a refresher course in maternal neonatal and child health (MNCH) for 10 days in a classroom setting, in addition to mortality and morbidity audits and LDHF hands-on training for 6 months. The control arm, also with 28 facilities, will consist solely of the standard MNCH refresher training delivered in a classroom setting. The main outcomes are perinatal deaths in the intervention arms compared with those in the control arm. A final sample of approximately 600 deliveries per cluster was expected for a total of 30,000 newborns over 14 months. Data sources included both routine health records and follow-up household surveys of all women who recently gave birth in the study facility 7 days postdelivery. Data collection tools will capture perinatal deaths, complications, and adverse events, as well as the status of the newborn during the perinatal period. A full economic evaluation will be conducted to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of each of the case-based focused LDHF hands-on training strategies in comparison to MNCH refresher training in a classroom setting.Results: The trial is complete. The recruitment began on July 15, 2019, and data collection began on July 23, 2019, and was completed in November 2020. Data cleaning or analyses began at the time of submission of the protocol.Conclusions: The results will provide policy makers and practitioners with crucial information on the impact of different health care provider training modalities on maternal and newborn health outcomes and how to successfully implement these strategies in resource-limited settings.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03656237; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03656237.International registered report identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/28644

    Metrics of early childhood growth in recent epidemiological research: a scoping review

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    Metrics to quantify child growth vary across studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. We conducted a scoping review of child growth studies in which length/height, weight or body mass index (BMI) was measured at 2 time points. From a 10% random sample of eligible studies published between Jan 2010-Jun 2016, and all eligible studies from Oct 2015-June 2016, we classified growth metrics based on author-assigned labels (e.g., 'weight gain') and a 'content signature', a numeric code that summarized the metric's conceptual and statistical properties. Heterogeneity was assessed by the number of unique content signatures, and label-to-content concordance. In 122 studies, we found 40 unique metrics of childhood growth. The most common approach to quantifying growth in length, weight or BMI was the calculation of each child's change in z-score. Label-to-content discordance was common due to distinct content signatures carrying the same label, and because of instances in which the same content signature was assigned multiple different labels. In conclusion, the numerous distinct growth metrics and the lack of specificity in the application of metric labels challenge the integration of data and inferences from studies investigating the determinants or consequences of variations in childhood growth

    Prioritizing research for integrated implementation of early childhood development and maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health and nutrition platforms

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    Background: Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).Methods: We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question.Findings: The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top-ranked research question were: i) How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions? ; ii) How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource-poor settings? ; and iii) How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes? . Most highly-ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource-limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost-effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial barriers, and quality assessment of programs.Conclusions: Investing in ECD is critical to achieving several of the SDGs, including SDG 2 on ending all forms of malnutrition, SDG 3 on ensuring health and well-being for all, and SDG 4 on ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promotion of life-long learning opportunities for all. The generated research agenda is expected to drive action and investment on priority approaches to integrating ECD interventions within existing health and nutrition services
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